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Age of the Reformation II. Luther and Erasmus: The reformation begins. Martin. Luder Ludher Lutter Luttherr Luther. Martin Luther 1483-1546. Born Nov. 10 1483 into a peasant family The son of a farmer turned miner and a hard working mother

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age of the reformation ii

Age of the Reformation II

Luther and Erasmus:

The reformation begins







martin luther 1483 1546
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • Born Nov. 10 1483 into a peasant family
  • The son of a farmer turned miner and a hard working mother
  • Was raised with stern discipline as well as a chatechismal education
  • At 14 he supported himself by singing in the streets
  • He gained the notice/patronage of Frau Ursula Cota “on account of his hearty singing and praying”
martin luther 1483 15461
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • At 18 he enrolled in the University of Erfurt, then one of the top universities in Germany
  • 1502 Bachelor of Arts, 1505 a Master of Arts (Ph.D equivalent)
  • Luther then prepared himself as his father wished to go to Law School
  • 1505 His friend Alexius died (lightning or duel)
  • July 1505 Caught in a thunderstorm and cried out to St. Ann, promising monkdom in exchange for rescue
martin luther 1483 15462
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • July 17, Luther joins an Augustinian Convent at Erfurt
  • He became obsessed with the assurance of his salvation and constantly aware of his sin
  • Held strictly to catholic doctrine, including excessive worship of the Virgin Mary
  • Confessed at least once a week to the eventual annoyance of his confessor
  • His mentor Staupitz pointed him towards the cross and grace
martin luther 1483 15463
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • Luther continually pondered the meaning of Romans 1:17
  • Was ordained in 1507 and gave his first mass, almost fainting at the altar
  • 1510 Luther made a pilgrimage to Rome
  • Arrived hailing “Thrice Holy Rome”
  • He ran to visit all the shrines, and sought the promised forgiveness in the climbing of the Scala Santa on his knees
luther in rome 1510
Luther in Rome 1510
  • He became severely disillusioned with Rome due to all its excesses
  • Speedy masses, irreverent consecration, mockery of honest Christians
  • “if there was a hell, Rome was built on it”
  • “Rome, once the holiest city is now the worst”
  • Afterwards(1511) Luther moved the the Augustinian convent of Wittenberg and became a professor
martin luther 1483 15464
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • The building of St. Peter’s Dome was begun in 1506 by Pope Julian II using indulgences as a means to pay for the expenses (it was finally completed in 1626)
  • Indulgences were technically the removal of the temporal consequences of sin, but not a route to salvation
  • Johann Tetzel was the salesman for Indulgences in the Wittenberg area
martin luther 1483 15465
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • The continual sale of indulgences drove Luther to write the 95 Theses
  • Oct. 31 1517 Luther posts the Theses on the door of the Wittenberg chapel
  • The 95 Theses were posted as a challenge to debate not as a breech with the Church
the 95 theses
The 95 Theses
  • Luther’s protest against the abuse of indulgences
  • 3 Main points
      • Indulgences are ineffective
      • The Pope is good
      • Justification by faith in Christ
leipzig disputation 1519
Leipzig Disputation 1519
  • Initial papal reaction was to ignore the Theses
  • Many disputes and callings of heretic later comes the Leipzig Disputation
  • Luther vs. Dr. Eck (Johann Mair)
  • In the Leipzig Disputation Luther realized he didn’t hold with the authority of the Church or Pope
  • Both claimed victory
  • Luther gives up on reform and starts the Reformation
luther attacks 1520
Luther Attacks 1520
  • Luther begins his break with the church by appealing to the German Princes for protection
  • He follows up by writing many vicious anti-papal/Roman Catholic works
  • Babylonian Captivity of the church being one of the chief of his polemics addressing
    • Universality of the cup
    • Proper communion
    • Baptism
    • Number of sacraments (Baptism and Bread only)
martin luther 1483 15466
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • Luther is Shortly thereafter given a bull of Excommunication
  • He responds by writing “Against the Bull of Antichrist” and calling the pope a heretic then burns the Bull
  • Luther is now hunted by the papacy as a heretic and flees to various princes for protection
diet of worms 1521
Diet of Worms 1521
  • Emperor Charles V calls the Diet of Worms to try and settle the issue of Luther
  • Jerome Aleander represented the papacy
  • Luther arrives with great pomp and celebration
  • He is asked to acknowledge his works and recant them
  • He asks quietly for a day to consider
diet of worms 15211
Diet of Worms 1521
  • He returns the next day and strongly affirms all of his writings
  • He then proceeds to call both pope and councils fallible forever confirming his status as a heretic
  • The papists claim victory over Martin but the promised safe conduct of Charles V is surprisingly kept and arch-heretic Martin lived to see another day
peasants war 1523 25
Peasants War 1523-25
  • The Peasants grew tired of being slaves and wanted better living conditions and some measure of autonomy
  • They teamed up with radical protestants and rebelled against the princes
  • Luther condemned the rebellion and told the princes to quash it
  • The princes took his advice and the rebellion stopped
martin luther 1483 15467
Martin Luther 1483-1546
  • Luther got married to Catharina von Boren
  • He loved his Katie much
  • He did lots of other reformation stuff like translating the bible
  • He died in Eisleben in Prussian Saxony Feb. 18, 1546
  • He liked talking about farts
desiderius erasmus1466 1536
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • Born out of wedlock to a Dutch priest Gerard and a physicians daughter Margaret
  • After his mother died his guardians stole his inheritance and forced him into a monastery
  • 1486-1491 was a monk and became thoroughly disgusted with the institution
  • Obtained a bishops patronage and gained liscensce to become a priest and flee the monastery
  • Studied at the universties of Paris and Orleans
desiderius erasmus1466 15361
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • He survived mainly by patronage living off of the many “gifts” given to him for his clever writing
  • Studied classics incessantly and was a deep thinker, called the father of Christian Humanism
  • Wrote prolifically, including many works which criticized monks, priests, and the papacy
  • He was continually in and out of favor with the papacy
desiderius erasmus1466 15362
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • He loved peace, but also morality and wanted true reform within the church
  • Lived Latin, he spoke very little of any other language including his native Dutch
  • Courted the favor of Pope Leo X, but never stopped criticizing the immoral things he did
  • Took no sides in the Protestant/Catholic debate resulting in him being to Protestant to be Catholic and too Catholic to be Protestant
desiderius erasmus1466 15363
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
  • Luther and many other reformers looked to Erasmus for teaching though he conflicted with Luther often
  • Luther was said to have “hatched the egg laid by Erasmus”
  • Erasmus and Luther debated heatedly over the issue of Free Will, neither ever admitting the other was right
  • He died Feb. 12 1536 without a priest repeating “O Jesus, have mercy; Lord, deliver me; Lord make an end’ Lord, have mercy upon me!”