Ceratophyllales basal eudicots caryophyllales
1 / 49

Ceratophyllales , “Basal” Eudicots , Caryophyllales - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Ceratophyllales , “Basal” Eudicots , Caryophyllales. Spring 2013. Major Angiosperm Clades. Amborellaceae Nymphaeales Austrobaileyales MAGNOLIID COMPLEX MONOCOTS EUDICOTS [TRICOLPATES]. ANITA GRADE. Soltis et al. 2000, APG II 2002, Judd et al. 2002. Fig. 7.1.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Ceratophyllales , “Basal” Eudicots , Caryophyllales' - quinto

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Ceratophyllales basal eudicots caryophyllales

Ceratophyllales, “Basal” Eudicots, Caryophyllales

Spring 2013

Major Angiosperm Clades











Soltis et al. 2000,

APG II 2002,

Judd et al. 2002

Ceratophyllales ceratophyllaceae

-Submerged aquatic with many adaptations for this habitat

-Fossil record extends back to the early Cretaceous

-Phylogenetic position still uncertain, but clearly part of the early radiation of angiosperms above the ANITA grade

Ceratophyllum – Probably sister

to the eudicots

The most recent

molecular data

support this.


Ceratophyllaceae -


Eudicots tricolpates
Eudicots (tricolpates)

  • Monophyletic: tricolpate pollen, slender filaments in stamens*, and loss of ethereal oils

  • Ca. 125 million years old as a lineage

  • Ca. 75% of angiosperm diversity (at least 160,000 species)

  • Flower parts in whorls, with whorls alternating*

*also happened in monocots!

Basal eudicots saxifragales vitales caryophyllales
“Basal” eudicots, Saxifragales, Vitales, Caryophyllales



Order Ranunculales

Ranunculaceae – Buttercups

Berberidaceae - Barberries

Papaveraceae - Poppies

Order Proteales

Platanaceae - Sycamore

Order Caryophyllales

Polygonaceae - Knotweeds

Caryophyllaceae - Carnations

Amaranthaceae - Amaranths

Cactaceae - Cacti

Basal eudicots ranunculales ranunculaceae the buttercup family
“Basal” Eudicots:Ranunculales: Ranunculaceae(The Buttercup Family)

  • Widespread, but predominantly of temperate and boreal regions

  • Herbs or less often shrubs or vines

  • Diversity: 2,300 species in 47 genera

  • Flowers: receptacle short to elongated, parts in spirals; tepals 4 to many; stamens numerous; 5+ free carpels; fruit usually an aggregate of follicles or achenes

  • Significant features: wide range of floral diversity and pollination syndromes, toothed or lobed leaves

  • Special uses: primarily ornamentals

  • Required family




Ranunculus: buttercup

Ranunculaceae – Ranunculus


Ranunculaceae – Aquilegia


Nectar spur

Basal eudicots ranunculales papaveraceae the poppy family
“Basal” Eudicots:Ranunculales: Papaveraceae (The Poppy Family)

  • Widely distributed in temperate regions; N. Hemisphere, South Africa

  • Herbs or soft wooded shrubs

  • Diversity: 780 species in 43-44 genera

  • Flowers: Sepals 2 (-3) & quickly deciduous; petals 4 (6); carpels 2+, connate, superior ovary; fruit a capsule (poricidal or slits)

  • Significant features: Leaves often highly dissected or lobed; latex/laticifers present; most taxa are poisonous

  • Special uses: poppy (Papaver somniferum) source of opiate alkaloids, ornamentals

  • Family not required

Basal eudicots proteales platanaceae the sycamore family
“Basal” Eudicots:Proteales: Platanaceae (The Sycamore Family)

  • Tropical to temperate regions, N. America, S. Europe, SW & SE Asia

  • Trees

  • Diversity: 8-10 species in 1 genus

  • Flowers: densely arranged in a raceme of globose heads; flowers small, unisexual, inconspicuous, wind-pollinated; fruits are aggregates of achenes associated with hairs in dense, globose clusters

  • Significant features: characteristic bark; leaves usually with palmate venation; axillary buds covered by an enlarged petiole base

  • Special uses: ornamental trees, lumber

  • Family not required

Platanaceae platanus occidentalis
Platanaceae – Platanus occidentalis

Core eudicots the caryophyllales
Core Eudicots:The Caryophyllales

  • Vessel elements with simple perforation plates

  • Anther wall development

  • Support mainly from molecular data

  • Two main clades: Core Caryophyllales and the non-core Caryophyllales

  • Evidence now supports placement sister to the Asterids; previously near base of core eudicots

  • 10,650 species in 30 families

One origin of carnivory there is another in the asterids
One Origin of Carnivory(there is another in the Asterids)

  • One clade of the non-core Caryophyllales evolved carnivory (lost in one of the families)

  • At least three mechanisms: snap-traps, pitchers, sticky glands

Droseraceae drosera sundews
Droseraceae – Drosera(sundews)

Dionaeaceae dionaea venus fly traps
Dionaeaceae – Dionaea (Venus fly traps)


Non core caryophyllales polygonaceae the buckwheat or knotweed family
Non-core Caryophyllales:Polygonaceae(The Buckwheat or Knotweed Family)

  • Widely distributed, usually in temperate regions

  • Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines

  • Diversity: Approx. 1,100 species in 43 genera

  • Flowers: Perianth of 4-6 petaloid (sepaloid) tepals; stamens 5-9; carpels 2-3 in superior ovary; fruit an achene or nutlet, often 3- angled, often associated with remaining perianth parts

  • Significant features: Presence of a sheathing stipule, the ocrea, at stem nodes (lost in Eriogonum); nodes often swollen; leaves usually alternate, simple and spirally arranged; flowers in fascicles, these variously arranged in inflorescences

  • Special uses: buckwheat (Fagopyrum) fruits used as food; rhubarb (Rheum) petioles and sorrel (Rumex) leaves used as vegetable; many weeds

  • Required family

Polygonaceae polygonum knotweeds
Polygonaceae: Polygonum (knotweeds)

-a number of species in this

genus are weedy

Polygonaceae: Persicaria (smartweeds)

-a number of these are

native to North American

prairies, found especially in

potholes and sloughs

Polygonaceae -


Polygonaceae – Buckwheat (Fagopyrum)

Core caryophyllales
Core Caryophyllales

Demonstrated to be monophyletic based mainly on DNA data, but most also share the following derived characters:

  • Betalain pigments – Nitrogen-containing (alkaloidal) red and yellow pigments that replace the anthocyanin (phenolic) pigments found in most other land plants

  • Presence of perisperm in seeds – specialized diploid tissue derived from the megasporangium

  • Ovules campylotropous with ‘beaked’ integuments – inner integument extends beyond outer at micropyle

  • Placentation free-central to basal

  • Coiled or folded embryos in seeds

  • Uniseriate perianth – single whorl of tepals

  • Stamens maturing centrifugally – Innermost anthers mature first, progressively moving to outside of whorl

  • Special form of sieve tube plastids surrounded by proteinaceous filaments

Core caryophyllales2
Core Caryophyllales

Betalain Pigments

Anthocyanin Pigments

Suborder caryophyllineae
Suborder Caryophyllineae

Ovule and Seed Characters

Agrostemma sp.

curved embryo


“Beaked” integument of ovule

Core caryophyllales caryophyllaceae the carnation family
Core Caryophyllales:Caryophyllaceae(The Carnation Family)

  • Widespread, usually in temperate/warm temperate regions of N. hemisphere

  • Herbs; leaves opposite, entire, sometimes hairy

  • Diversity: Approx. 2,400 species in 70 genera

  • Flowers: Tepals 4-5, usually appearing as sepals; outer whorl of stamens often very petal-like and called “petals”; stamens 4-10; carpels 2-5, superior ovary; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule

  • Significant features: Presence of anthocyanin pigments (loss of betalains); swollen nodes; notched “petals”

  • Special uses: Many ornamentals

  • Family not required

Core caryophyllales amaranthaceae the pigweed or amaranth family
Core Caryophyllales:Amaranthaceae(The Pigweed or Amaranth Family)

  • Cosmopolitan, in disturbed, arid or saline habitats

  • Primarily herbs, or small shrubs, occasionally succulent

  • Diversity: Approx. 2,000 species in 174-175 genera

  • Flowers: small, tepals usually 3-5; carpels 2-3, usually in superior ovary; inflorescences compact; fruit an achene, utricle, or circumcissile capsule (pyxis) usually associated with persistent perianth parts

  • Significant features: Includes “Chenopodiaceae”; many halophytes; polyporate pollen; stipules lacking; basal placentation; many with C4 photosynthesis

  • Special uses: beets (Beta), spinach (Spinacia), amaranth (Amaranthus), and goosefoot (Chenopodium) are eaten as vegetables or pseudograins; ornamantals, agricultural weeds

  • Required family

Amaranthaceae amaranthus amaranths
Amaranthaceae: Amaranthus(amaranths)

Amaranthaceae chenopodium lamb s quarters quinoa
Amaranthaceae: Chenopodium(lamb’s quarters, quinoa)

Amaranthaceae salicornia pickleweed
Amaranthaceae: Salicornia (pickleweed)

-salt tolerant

-C4 photosynthesis

Core caryophyllales cactacaceae the cactus family
Core Caryophyllales:Cactacaceae(The Cactus Family)

  • North and South America; usually in arid zones or seasonally dry regions; tropics to temperate regions

  • Spiny stem succulents; trees, shrubs, globular forms, vines, epiphytes, geophytes

  • Diversity: 1,400 species in 97 genera

  • Flowers: Tepals numerous, often highly colored, spirally arranged; stamens numerous; carpels 3 to many in an inferior ovary; fruit a berry

  • Significant features: Lateral shoots reduced to areoles, associated with a spine or spine cluster; reduced in subfamily Opuntioideae to glochids; CAM metabolism

  • Special uses: Fruits (tunas) and stems (nopales) of Opuntia and some other genera are eaten; many grown as ornamentals.

  • Required family

Cactaceae distribution

is restricted to the

western Hemisphere

except for Rhipsalis



Opuntia - Prickly pear

areole; glochids

(irritating hair-like



Areole – axillary bud area

Cactaceae primitive genus pereskia
Cactaceae – Primitive genus Pereskia

Cactaceae opuntia
Cactaceae: Opuntia

-stem segments

flattened - “pads”

-glochids present

Some cacti are bat pollinated!