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The Basal Ganglia. Dr. Nimir Dr. Safaa. Objectives Understand the anatomical and functional definition of the basal ganglia. Identify the different components of the basal ganglia.

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the basal ganglia

The Basal Ganglia

Dr. Nimir

Dr. Safaa

slide3

Objectives

  • Understand the anatomical and functional definition of the basal ganglia.
  • Identify the different components of the basal ganglia.
  • Describe the connections of the different components of the basal ganglia and the indirect pathways from the basal ganglia to the lower motor neurons.
  • Describe signs and symptoms of lesions which affect different components of the basal ganglia.
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Basal ganglia are masses of gray matter situated deep within each cerebral hemisphere.

  • The basal nuclei play an important role in control of posture and voluntary movement, but have no direct input or output connections with spinal cord.
  • They are:
  • Corpus striatum.
  • Amygdaloid nucleus.
  • Claustrum.
  • SubstantiaNigra.
  • Subthalamic Nuclei.
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Corpus striatum:

  • Is lateral to thalamus and divided by internal capsule, into caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus.
  • Caudate nucleus has head, body & tail which terminates in amygdaloid nucleus.
  • Lentiform nucleus is lateral to internal capsule & medial to external capsule.
  • It is divided into dark putamen & light globuspallidus.
  • Neostriatum means putamen & caudate nucleus.
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Amygdaloid nucleus:

  • Is in temporal lobe close to uncus.
  • It is part of the limbic system.
  • Claustrum:
  • Is thin gray matter lateral to external capsule and medial to subcortical white matter of insula.
  • Substantianigra and subthalamic nuclei:
  • Substantianigra of midbrain and subthalamic nuclei of diencephalon are functionally related to basal nuclei.
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Connections:

  • Caudate nucleus and putamenare main sites for receiving input to the basal nuclei.
  • The globuspallidusis major site of output from basal nuclei.
  • Connections of the Corpus Striatum:
  • Afferent fibers:
  • Corticostriate.
  • Thalamostriate.
  • Nigrostriate.
  • Brainstem.
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Efferent fibers:

  • Striatopallidal.
  • Striatonigral.
  • Connections of the globuspallidus:
  • Afferent:
  • Striatopallidal.
  • Efferent :
  • Pallidofugal Fibers which are:
  • Ansalenticularisto thalamic nuclei.
  • Fasciculus lenticularisto subthalamus.
  • Pallidosubthalamic to subthalamic nuclei.
  • Pallidotegmental to tegmentum of the midbrain.
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Functions of the basal nuclei:

  • Basal nuclei control muscular movements by influencing cerebral cortex.
  • They have no direct control through descending pathways to brainstem and spinal cord.
  • They assist in regulation of voluntary movement and learning of motor skills.
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Disorders of the basal nuclei:

  • Are of two types:Hyperkinetic disorders are those in which there are excessive and abnormal movements (chorea, athetosis, and ballism).
  • Hypokinetic disorders are those in which there is a lack or slowness of movement.
  • Parkinson disease includes both types of motor disturbances.