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A Framework for achieving sustainable urban mobility in Asia. Sophie Punte Executive Director CAI-Asia Center. National University of Singapore 25 January 2010. Outline. Sustainable transport is the only solution for Asian cities

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A Framework for achieving sustainable urban mobility in Asia

Sophie Punte

Executive Director

CAI-Asia Center

National University of Singapore

25 January 2010

  • Sustainable transport is the only solution for Asian cities
  • A Framework for achieving sustainable transport in Asian cities
  • Implementing the framework
about the clean air initiative
About the Clean Air Initiative

The Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities promotes reductions of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions in transport, energy and other sectors by translating knowledge to policy and action

CAI-Asiabegan as a multi-stakeholder initiative by ADB, World Bank and USAID

The CAI-Asia Center was incorporated in 2007 as a non-stock, non-profit corporation in the Philippines

The CAI-Asia Partnership has 170 organizational members and 8 Country Networks in Asia

explosive motorization growth across asia
Explosive motorization growth across Asia

Source: 2009. ADB, CAI-Asia, Segment Y Ltd., and IEA

pm emissions reductions in asia to be outstripped by vehicle growth
PM emissions reductions in Asia to be outstripped by vehicle growth

PM Emissions (1000 Tons)

Source: 2009. ADB, CAI-Asia, Segment Y Ltd., and IEA

significant growth in co 2 emissions from road transport expected in asia
Significant growth in CO2 emissions from road transport expected in Asia

Source: 2008. ADB, CAI-Asia, and Segment Y Ltd

reasons for unsustainable transport
Reasons for unsustainable transport
  • Absence of a city development strategy
  • Unsustainable transport policies driven by meeting demand by creating additional infrastructures
  • Ineffective transport planning by the experts, thus disenfranchising users, residents and other stakeholders
  • Little implementation due to a disconnect between plans and available budgets
  • Little data about the success or failure of implementation in achieving policy goals
  • Governance problems where politics won over technocratic advice.

Source: ADB, 2009. Changing Course - a New Paradigm for Sustainable Urban Transport

poor people are more affected by unsustainable transport
Poor people are more affected by unsustainable transport

The essence of poverty is not only lack of material resources but also lack of power and choice

Perspectives on Poverty. Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), 2002

why poor people are more affected by unsustainable transport
Why poor people are more affected by unsustainable transport
  • Transportation high proportion of poor people’s costs
    • Shanghai: low income groups pay as much on transport as on healthcare (5%), clothing (5%) and rent (0.8%) combined
    • Rising fuel prices exacerbate this
  • Poor people depend more on public transport and non-motorized transport, yet transport policies favor private vehicles thus deteriorating transport optionsfor the poor
  • Poor people cannot afford to livein central areas where jobs are. Worsening traffic conditions make their travel times even longer

Source: Per Capita Consumption Expenditures Urban Household In Main Years -

why poor people are more affected by air pollution from transport
Why poor people are more affected by air pollution from transport
  • Relatively more poor people in cities travel with public transport, walk and cycle, thus they are more exposed to air pollution
  • Poor people have less financial means to get medical help
  • Loss of income and jobs resulting from air pollutioninduced/enhanced diseaseshave more severe consequences for the poorand their families
paradigm shift framework for achieving sustainable transport in asian cities
Paradigm shift: Framework for achieving sustainable transport in Asian cities

Framework provides guidance in translating thinking on sustainable urban transport into practical implementation in Asian cities

Source: CAI-Asia Center, 2009. Achieving Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asian Cities – Discussion paper

1 planning
1. Planning

Vision for a livable city and city master plan

Land use planning

Economically vibrant


Accessible to all

Clean air

Transport master plan

manage the demand for transport and mobility, rather than facilitate the demand

Green environment


Residential areas


Public spaces



Transport system


Office buildings


example environmental sustainable transport strategy
Example: Environmental Sustainable Transport Strategy

2. Road safety and maintenance

3. Traffic noise management

4. Social equity and gender perspectives

1. Public health

12. Strengthening knowledge base, awareness and public participation

5. Public transport planning & TDM

11. Land use planning

6. Non-motorized transport

10. Vehicle emissions control & standards & I/M

7. Environment and people friendly infrastructure

8. Strengthening road side air quality monitoring and assessment

8. Cleaner fuels

2 design an integrated transport system
2. Design an integrated transport system
  • Prioritize and select the different transportmodes within the transport system
    • A vision of a compact and healthy city does not rhyme with a car-based city
    • A spread out city cannot be served by sidewalks and bicycle lanes alone
  • Consider options within selected transport modes
    • BRT systems for a growing city with a relatively large low income group (e.g. Ahmedabad)
    • Metro system for a wealthy and already dense city (e.g. Hong Kong)
  • Integrate transport modes
    • Public transport system design to include walking and cycling facilities and public transport feeder systems
    • Roads designed not only for cars but also for other transport modes
example integrating cycling into urban transport systems
Example: Integrating Cycling into Urban Transport Systems

A bicycle-friendly infrastructure has to satisfy five main requirements:

  • Coherence: a complete network with a very dense mesh of cycle lanes to connect origins and destinations
  • Directness: routes with minimal detours and journeys with minimal stops (such as intersections with exclusive right of way for cyclists)
  • Safety: minimum number of conflicting points or intersections with motorized vehicles or reduced intensity of conflict between cyclists and motorists (such as removing parking spaces from cycling lanes)
  • Comfort: ease of finding and selecting routes and minimum nuisance such as noise, fumes, congestion, and motorized interferences
  • Attractiveness: degree of visual and spatial experience of the ride during the user’s journey

Source: Bicycle Infrastructure Design Manual for Indian Sub-continent. Interface for Cycling Expertise (I-CE, 2009)

example key considerations in integrating 2 3 wheelers into urban transport systems
Example: Key considerations in integrating 2-3 wheelers into urban transport systems
  • Limiting the number of cycle rickshaws through commercial vehicle regulation is better than banning cycle rickshaws or motor rickshaws on roads other than high-speed roads
  • Banning motorcycles or bicycles will not be successful as a traffic congestion mitigation measure
  • Banning any vehicle types is justified in zones not in compliance with an international/national recognized ambient air quality or noise standard
  • Innovative use of road user chargingshould be explored to encourage use of2- and 3-wheelers with lower weight, whichgenerate fewer emissions, less noise, and operate at slower speeds
  • Banning access is unjustified for motorcyclists (less than 125cc), bicyclists, cycle rickshaws, or motor rickshaws on specific roads based on unsafe driving and accidents
3 analyze the transport system
3. Analyze the transport system
  • PEST + E analysis that is also used in macro-economic analysis: political, economic, social, technological, and environment
  • Reiterative process: analysis results are used to make revisions to the design of the system, and which may require subsequent analysis.
  • For a realistic transport system distinguish
    • “core” or essential elements
    • elements that are not as critical to the functioning of the system and achievement of policy goals
example technical analysis operation of ahmedabad bus rapid transit brt system
Example technical analysis: operation of Ahmedabad bus rapid transit (BRT) system

Operational or service plan to provide a high performance system

  • Identify and evaluate
  • Trunk routes on the segregated BRT corridors
  • Feeder routes required to complement the trunk services
  • Fleet required on each route based on service frequency
  • Schedule for trunk and feeder buses
  • Terminals that buses will operate between
  • Depots where buses will be maintained
  • Bus parking
  • Fare structure for the trunk and feeder service

Source: Operational Plan: Ahmedabad Bus Rapid Transit System. ITDP (2009).

example technical analysis walkability surveys
Example technical analysis: walkability surveys
  • Walkability surveys assess the quality of pedestrian infrastructure and supporting policies:
    • Field Walkability Survey: state of the pedestrian facilities
    • Pedestrian Interview Survey: pedestrian needs and preferences
    • Government/Stakeholder Survey: the policies, roles and responsibilities of government and stakeholders
  • Results survey in Karachi, Pakistan
  • Field walkability survey: Karachi Road best infrastructure
  • Pedestrian interview survey: greater demand for walking on Tariq Road

Source: Assessing Walkability in Karachi. Arif Parvez in cooperation with CAI-Asia Center (2009).

example environmental analysis e bikes and other transport modes in china
Example environmental analysis: e-bikesand other transport modes in China
  • E-bike emissions per passenger km when compared with:
    • Bus with 50 passengers: 15% less CO2, but more PM and SO2
    • Motorcycles: less CO2, but more SO2
    • Cars: less CO2 and less air pollutants (PM, SO2, CO, HC, NOx)
  • Reasons for higher SO2 emissions is electricity from coal-fired power plants
  • E- bikes currently result in increased lead emissions – lead acid batteries, however lithium ion battery technology can prevent this

Source: Electric Bikes in the People’s Republic of China - Impact on the Environment and Prospects for Growth. Cherry C., Weinert J., and Xinmiao Y. (2009).

example economic analysis financial savings from brt system in mexico city
Example economic analysis: financial savings from BRT system in Mexico City
  • Fuel cost savings are over 60% of total financial savings
  • CO2 savings relatively low, even at a high $/ton
  • Multi-criteria analysis is needed for co-benefits of transport systems, as cost savings alone is not sufficient

Instituto Nacional de Ecologia (INE), May 2008, “The benefits and costs of a Bus Rapid Transit System in Mexico City”.

Rogers, J. and L. Schipper. 2005. Measuring the Emissions Impact of a Bus Rapid Transport Project in Mexico City.

Example social analysis: performance indicators for selected social issues of public transport systems
  • Accessibility: spatial distance to education, health care, services, or the bus stop per household unit, whereby the lower the distance the higher the accessibility
  • Mobility: Daily travel time to work or education per household or daily trip fare to work or education per household unit, whereby the higher the value the higher the mobility
  • Availability: Types of public transport are available, number of change-overs or different types of public transport needed to reach certain destinations
  • Affordability: Cost of fares for traveling to different destinations compared to household income
  • Health: Noise levels expected around public transport systems compared to standards. Expected air pollution levels at bus stops compared to ambient air quality standards
  • Time saving: Amount of time to reach a destination by public transport compared to private vehicles. Comparison of trip durations with one year ago
4 implementation and monitoring
4. Implementation and monitoring

Six conditions for successful implementationand monitoring of transport systems

  • Political support
  • Stakeholder involvement
  • Institutional set up
  • Policies
  • Capacity
  • Financing
example political support pune india
Example political support: Pune, India
  • Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) aims to improve conditions for and promoting cycling and walking
  • Non-motorized transport (NMT) cell established
    • Acts like an NMT watchdog
    • Responsible agency is the Municipal Commissioner Office, under the PMC
    • Proposals originating from the NMT cell are conveyed to the concerned departments for action
    • Departments must provide information, data and personnel as needed by the NMT cell and report back on progress of action items

example institutional set up possible model for sustainable transport system
Example institutional set up: possible model for sustainable transport system

Source: “Changing Course - a New Paradigm for Sustainable Urban Transport”, ADB (2009)

example policies philippines est strategy
Example policies: Philippines EST strategy
  • Policies should be a mix of
    • Avoid: avoiding the need to travel
    • Shift: shifting travel to more sustainable modes
    • Improve: improving the sustainability of modes
  • Policy examples from Philippines EST Strategy:

Source: EST in the Philippines - Strategies and Action Plans. Department of Transport and Communications of the Philippines (2009)

example capacity building possible model to build capacity on sustainable urban transport
Example capacity building: possible model to build capacity on sustainable urban transport
  • The capacity of government officials in developing countries is limited to address challenges of rapid motorization
  • Components of capacity building program for sustainable urban transport should include
  • Training Content
  • General SUT
  • Transport systems (MRT, TDM, NMT)
  • Detailed technical training
  • Type of Training
  • Individual training
  • Training with application in practice
  • Training of trainers
  • Institutionalized training
  • Target group
  • Government: decision-makers, managers, operators
  • Practitioners (NGOs, academic /research institutions)
  • Development agencies/donors
  • Public and media
  • Geographical scope
  • City
  • Provincial
  • National
example financing generation and allocation of funds for sustainable transport
Example financing: generation and allocation of funds for sustainable transport

Generation of funds

  • Transport Oriented Funding Mechanisms
  • Fuel tax (road funds)
  • Vehicle taxes
  • Parking charges
  • Road pricing
  • Fare revenue
  • Public transport subsidies
  • Business taxes
  • Advertising
  • Land related taxes and charges
  • Grants, loans, tax transfers
  • Private sector investments
  • Carbon Oriented Funding Mechanisms
  • Environmental taxation
  • CDM
  • ETS
  • GEF
  • Multilateral funds (e.g. WB CTF,
  • Bilateral funds (e.g. Japan Cool Earth Partnership; German International Climate Initiative)


Allocation of funds to sustainable transport

Source: Chapter V. innovative financing of low-carbon and energy efficient transport. K. Sokamoto. In: Rethinking Transport and Climate Change, ADB and CAI-Asia Center (2009)

example monitoring performance monitoring system of bus system in indore india
Example monitoring: performance monitoring system of bus system in Indore, India
  • Monitoring of scheduling, routing, user interaction, safety, reliability, regularity of service and utilization of rolling stock.
  • Allows tracking of current operations and projecting future forecasts.
  • Using this information, a transport operator can re-organizing operations tocater to the evolvingdemand and passengerneeds

Source: Partnering with Indian Institutions and organizations for sustainable urban transport: a showcase of the experience of WRI-EMBARQ in India. (2009)

implementing the framework
Implementing the framework
  • Scaling out within cities
    • On the ground actions
    • Integrating activities in wider urban planning
    • Looking beyond single issues and aiming for sustainability
  • Scaling up to thousands of Asian cities
implementing the framework what is needed
Implementing the framework: what is needed
  • What cities need: process facilitation, technical advice, and financial support such as development loans
  • Create model cities, whose experience can be replicated in other cities
  • An integrated effort at the national and regional level to make the shift to sustainable transport in Asia
    • Decision-makers: Government agencies and policy makers
    • Practitioners: NGOs, academic and research institutions, consultancies
    • Financial institutions, donors, development agencies
    • Private sector: developers, construction firms, suppliers, fuel/oil companies, automotive manufacturers

CAI-Asia Center

Sophie Punte, Executive Director

Bert Fabian, Transport Program Manager

GlyndaBathan, Policy and Partnership Manager

Unit 3510, 35th floor

Robinsons-Equitable Tower

ADB Avenue, Pasig City

Metro Manila 1605


This presentation is based on the paper “Achieving Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia” written by CAI-Asia Center (2009). The paper was developed as part of the Sustainable Urban Mobility in Asia (SUMA) program. The SUMA program is supported by the Asian Development Bank through a grant from Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. SUMA is implemented by the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center (, in partnership with EMBARQ - the World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable Transport (, GTZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project (, Interface for Cycling Expertise (, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (, and United Nations Center for Regional Development (