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Prototheria (monotremes). Metatheria (marsupials). The 3 subclasses of mammals differ strikingly in their modes of reproduction. Eutheria (placentals). Monotremes: Unique Reproduction Lay eggs Cloaca No nipples. 1. Ovaries larger (relative to body size) than other mammals
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Prototheria (monotremes) Metatheria (marsupials) The 3 subclasses of mammals differ strikingly in their modes of reproduction Eutheria (placentals)
Monotremes: Unique Reproduction • Lay eggs • Cloaca • No nipples
1. Ovaries larger (relative to body size) than other mammals 2. Oviducts open into urogenital opening called a cloaca, similar to reptile cloaca (meaning of name “monotreme”) 3. Milk secreted by glands in skin, licked from tufts of fur at concentrations of glands 4. Young have “egg tooth” like birds to help break out of egg Platypus: 1-2 eggs Echidna: 1 egg Unique Features of Monotreme Reproduction
How can a mammal lay an egg???? • Monotreme egg? • Reptile egg?
Typical platypus reproduction: Egg is fertilized in fallopian tubes before entry to uterus, eventually coated with leather mineralized shell before being laid. Egg at fertilization = 4 mm, when laid = 12 mm. Egg retained in uterus about 28 days while development proceeds. THEN shell added, egg laid, 10 more days of external incubation. (Eggs sticky, female cradles between stomach and tail.) Lactation about 3-4 months.
Platypus: • Low body temperature around 90 degrees farenheit • Living species of platypus lack teeth • Only found in Australia • Baby platypus’s is called a puggle • Small approximately 20 inches and 3 pounds • Eat insects and crustaceans using their sensitive bill to • Locate their prey. • 7. Use front feet to swim, steer with tail and backfeet
Monotremes: echidnas Only 1 egg, incubates in a pouch where hatching occurs. 4 species of echidnas: also called spiny ant eaters Located in Australia Lactation for about 4 months more. http://animal.discovery.com/videos/fooled-by-nature-spiny-anteater.html
Marsupials: kangaroo Wombat Wallaby Koala Marsupial wolf
Our friend, the opossum only marsupial in north america • Young tiny at birth (0.16 g) • Attach to nipples in pouch (marsupium) • Short gestation, longer lactation
Opossum: Mating season, January – July, 1-2 litters depending on latitude. Egg fertilized in fallopian tubes, also surrounded by a shell membrane (soft) at that time. Gestation (about 8 days). Last 1/3 of gestation (4 days), membrane shed, eggs sink into depressions in uterine wall (has a kind of placenta, but no firm implantation), absorbs nutrients and embryos continue to grow.
Gestation totals about 12-13 d. 7-9 young make it to suckling stage. Lactation continues to a total of about 95-105 days. Rarely live longer than 18 months. In wild, maximum known lifespan was 3 years. Females often get just 1 breeding season.
Eggs slightly larger than in placentals (0.12-0.28 mm vs 0.07-0.15 mm) Young never larger than about 1 g, no matter size of mother Gestation always short as or shorter than length of estrus cycle No placenta Many have pouch, but some only have folds of skin, and a few don’t have anything Some differences (from placentals) found in marsupials
Size difference in Monotremes and Marsupials compared to placental mammals
Gestation versus lactation What does this graph show? Marsuipals compared to placental mammals of the same size have Shorter Gestation (time in the womb) However, longer Lactation time ( time nursing the offspring) What does this data mean? Overall Marsuipals take longer to grow their offspring compared to Placentals
Time: conception to weaning Takes marsupial longer than placental to raise young to same size (weaning age)
So, which is “better?” Costs:Lactation is most energetically costly period of reproduction, and less efficient means of energy transfer to young. Probably costs them a bit more in terms of time and energy. Constraints:Newborn marsupials need to be able to crawl to pouch or teat, suckle, breathe, digest. But no wings, hooves, or flippers! Flexibility:Marsupials in individual offspring at time of birth, can adjust litter sizes, etc.
Australian Marsupials: Over 140 species: Most are threatened due to
Red Kangaroo: Diet: Herbivore Average life span in the wild:Up to 23 years Size: 3.25 to 5.25 ft Weight:200 lbs Group name:Mob Can reach speeds up to 35 mph and jump over 6 feet
Diet: Lives on eucalyptus leaves Average life span in the wild:20 years Size:23.5 to 33.5 in Weight:20 lbs Protection status: Threatened.
Bandicoot/Billby Over 40 species Diet: omnivore Lifespan: 2-3 years Size: 7-14 inches 1-3 pounds All species are endangered
Tasmian Devil Diet: Carnivore Lifespan: 5 years Size:20 to 31 in Weight:9 to 26 lbs Protection status:Endangered
The Amazing Antechinus! All females give birth within a few days each year. In late Sept, shortly after females mate, all males die! Semelparous: only 1 reproductive period per lifetime Iteroparous:multiple reproductive events per lifetime