RECALL…. • rhetoric – • written or spoken arguments; sending a message to the audience
Aristotle’s Triangle • This is a method to analyze arguments. We will use it while we discuss visual rhetoric subjectaudiencespeaker subject + context
What Should You Focus on? • subject – the speaker presents evidence on the subject that he or she considers effective for moving his audience. Solid evidence is essential to convincing the audience of his position. Evidence includesfacts, statistics, images, anecdotes, quotations, etc. • speaker – the speaker seeks to establish himself or herself as a credible person, steeped in knowledge of the subject, conscious of what is right or good for all involved in the issue or argument; the speaker will try to display components of virtue that a particular audience can identify (for example, justice, courage, self-control, poise, broad-mindedness, liberality, gentleness, prudence, wisdom) • audience – each particular audience is susceptible to certain types of appeals; good rhetoricians consider how to identify with the audience through speech, gesture, attitude, ideas, images; the speaker attempts to speak the language of the audience • context – surrounding issues or a particular set of circumstances that affect an audience’s reception of the argument
Aristotle’s Perspective “There are, then, these three means of effecting persuasion. The man who is to be in command of them must, it is clear, be able (1) to reason logically, (2) to understand human character and goodness in their various forms, and (3) to understand the emotions - that is, to name them and describe them, to know their causes and the way in which they are excited.” (Aristotle – Rhetoric, Bk. 1)
Three modes or appeals of rhetoric – ethos, pathos, logos: • ethos – depends on personal character of the speaker; speaker establishes himself as a credible • person to speak about this particular subject; speaker develops a persona in order to identify and connect himself to his audience • pathos – puts audience into a certain frame of mind; stirs the emotions appropriately according to the subject and purpose • logos – persuasive appeals to logic; providing apparent truth to prove the argument
What is an Argument? • Argument: the expression of a position for or against some idea; in an argument, a rhetorician advances evidence supporting his or her point of view. An argument may contain several claims.
Claims/Assertions • Claim or assertion: An arguable statement; a position on an issue or a subject. • Types of claims: • Claims of fact assert that a condition has existed, exists, or will exist, based on facts or data that the audience will accept as objectively verifiable • Claims of value state that something is or is not desirable, express approval or disapproval of standards of taste and morality; advertisements and reviews contain claims of value. • Claims of policy state that a course of action should or should not be taken; an argument on policy will contain claims of fact and value.
Let’s Practice. Take a look at the image below. Let’s first consider… • Subject • Speaker • Audience • Context
ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS • ETHOS Tom Toles is able to establish ethos because he is a well-known political cartoonist. The Washington Post is a respected and widely distributed publication, which adds to the ethos of the piece. • PATHOS The entire image is pathos. Parks was a devout Christian and her entering into heaven would be seen as great accomplishment by her. She is drawn to look similar to that of how she looked during her famous bus incident, which makes the reader or audience feel a connection. • LOGOS Logos is established in multiple ways: 1.) The background knowledge of Parks and her place in history makes it logical that she would get into heaven; 2.) The caption at the bottom, “we’ve been holding it open since 1955” makes a direct connection to the incident. It would be logical to assume that Parks, who fought for a courageous cause, would be rewarded in death by going to heaven.
CLAIMS or ASSERTIONS • What type of claim do you think this is? • FACT? (a condition has existed, will exist, or exists based on data) • POLICY? (trying to get something to change) • VALUE? (something is or is not desirable)
YOU PRACTICE! • For the next image, determine the following: • SUBJECT • SPEAKER • AUDIENCE • CONTEXT • ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS • THE CLAIM and what TYPE of CLAIM it is