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Information Literacy as a Transversal Competency

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  1. Prof. Dr. Serap Kurbanoğlu Hacettepe University Department of Information Management Information Literacy as a Transversal Competency Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  2. Today’s world is characterised by • globalisation • modernisation • complexity • competition • challenge • interdependence • constant change Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  3. Individuals need wide range of competencies • to keep up with the change • to adapt • to participate • to compete • to suceed • to survive Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  4. Definition of competency • ability to meet complex demands by drawing on knowledge, skills and attitudes in a particular context • the ability to communicate effectively is a competency that may draw on an individual’s • knowledge of language • practical IT skills • attitudes towards those with whom he is communicating Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  5. Importance of competencies (DeSeCo Project, 1997) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  6. Identifying key competencies • essential • to assess how well prepared individuals are for life’s challenges • to draw policy lessons • to identify goals for education systems • to enable sustainable development • to enable social cohesion • to enable social equity Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  7. Identifying key competencies • not an easy task • one needs to answer certain questions • what demands does today’s society place on its citizens? • what individuals need in order to function well in society? • what competencies do they need to find and to hold down a job? • what competencies do they need to succeed in daily life/school/work? • what competencies do they need to cope with changing technology? Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  8. Key/core/ transversal competencies • of particular value for both individuals and societies • usefull in multiple areas of life (wide variety of context) • important for everyone, not just for specialists Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  9. Identifying key competencies • PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment, OECD, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2012) • to monitor to what extent students near the end of compulsory schooling have acquired the knowledge and skills essential for full participation in society • DeSeCo (Definition and Selection of Competencies, OECD, 1997 –connected with PISA) • to identify a small set of key competencies • SCANS (Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, US Department of Labor, 2000) • to examine the demands of the workplace and to identify competencies for employability • ISTE (International Society for Technology in Education) • to identify key competencies for students and teachers Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  10. Transversal competencies • use tools interactively • use language, symbols and texts interactively • use knowledge and information interactively • use technology interactively • interact in heterogeneous groups • relate well to others • co-operate, work in teams • manage and resolve conflicts • act autonomously • act within the big picture • form and conduct life plans and personal projects • defend and assert rights, interests, limits and needs (DeSeCo Project, 1997) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  11. Workplace/employability competencies • Resource management skills • allocating time, money, materials, space, and staff • Interpersonal skills • working on teams, teaching others, serving customers, leading, negotiating, and working well with people from culturally diverse backgrounds • Information skills • acquiring and evaluating data, organizing and maintaining files, interpreting and communicating, and using computers to process information • Systems skills • understanding social, organizational, and technological systems, monitoring and correcting performance, and designing or improving systems • Technology skills • selecting equipment and tools, applying technology to specific tasks, and maintaining and troubleshooting technologies (SCANS Report, 1991) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  12. Fundamental skills and qualities • Basic skills • Reading, writing, arithmetic/mathematics, speaking, listening • Thinking skills • creative thinking, decision making, problem solving, knowing how to learn, reasoning • Personal qualities • responsibility, self-esteem, sociability, self-management, integrity/honesty (SCANS Report, 1991) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  13. Competencies for students • to learn effectively for a lifetime and live productively in our emerging global society: • ability to demonstrate creativity and innovation • ability to communicate and collaborate • ability to conduct research and use information • ability to think critically, solve problems, and make decisions • ability to use technology effectively and productively (ISTE, 2007) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  14. Information literacy - definitions • the ability to solve information problems (ALA, 2000) • a survival skill in the information age (ALA, 1989) • the ability of transforming information intoknowledge (Gawith, 2000) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  15. Information literacy - definitions • is a set of abilities requiring individuals to “recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information” (ALA, 1989) • is knowing when and why one needs information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use and communicate it in an ethical manner (CILIP) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  16. Information literacy - definitions • the ability to effectively identify, access, evaluate and make use of information in its various formats, and to choose the appropriate medium for communication. It also encompasses knowledge and attitudes related to ethical and social issues surrounding information and information technology (California Academic and Research Libraries Task Force, 1997) • a mean to “empower people in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals” (Alexandria Proclamation, 2005) Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  17. An evolving concept • information skills • higher order thinking skills • the format of information • other related skills • social and ethical issues Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  18. Visual literacy Library literacy Computer literacy Media literacy An umbrella term Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  19. Need for updating the existing knowledge Need for life long learning Need for new skills Keeping up with change Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  20. Lifelong learning • All learning activities undertaken throughout life on an ongoing basis in a variety of formal and informal settings, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills, understanding and competence, within a personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective (NIACE, 2003) • Content mastered by graduation is soon outdated or forgotten. Learning should continue beyond formal education Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  21. Inter-related concepts Lifelong learning Independent learning Information literacy Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  22. The importance of IL • is a prerequisite for lifelong learning • enables individuals to find appropriate information for personal and professional problems • is a prerequisite for participative citizenship, • is a prerequisite for social inclusion, • enables personal, vocational, corporate and organisational empowerment • enables individuals to deal with rapidly changing environments • enables adaptation to the information society Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  23. The importance of IL • enables individulas to assume greater control over their own learning and life • is vital for creating knowledgeable citizens and the creation of new knowledge • is crucial to the competitive advantage of individuals, enterprises, regions, and nations • maintains employability and productivity • improves personal choices and options • is essential for socio-economic development • creates highly skilled work force and strong societies • essential for survival in the future Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  24. The importance of IL is increasing • Expanding quantity of information • Uncertain quality of information • Characteristics of new generation • Proliferation of e-government applications and services Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  25. The total of all printed information doubles every five years (Bundy, 1999) More information has been generated in the last three decades than in all the previous 5000 put together (Bundy, 1999) 5 exabytes of information produced in 2002 (Lyman and Varian 2003) Expanding quantity of information Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  26. If digitized, the nineteen million books and other print collections in the Library of Congress would contain about ten terabytes of information Five exabytes of information is equivalent in size to the information contained in half a million new libraries the size of the Library of Congress print collections (Lyman and Varian 2003) How big is five exabytes? Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  27. Information overload • refers to the difficulty a person can have understanding an issue and making decisions that can be caused by the presence of too much information Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  28. Information fatigue syndrome • This disorder was first recognized in the 1990′s by a Dr. David Lewis Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  29. Information fatigue syndrome Symptoms of this disorder include: • the paralysis of the analytical capacity • increased anxiety • increased stress • sleeplessness • constant searches for more information • increased self-doubt in decision making Caused mainly by: • doubts about having the right information • doubts about having enough information? Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  30. Uncertain quality of information • New technologies (Web 2.0) allow everyone to participate in exploring, creating, spreading and commenting on information • Information increasingly comes unfiltered (lack of peer review and editorship) • Questions about reliability • Users should understand these and be critical in depending on them Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  31. Amateur authors Amateur editors Amateur critics Amateur searchers The age of the amateurs Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  32. They were born during the computer age and grew up in a technological world They are referred to as Internet Generation, Generation Y, Echo Boomers, The Plug-and-Play-Generation, Millenials, The Game Boy Generation, The-Cut-and-Paste Generation (Rockman, 72) They are a much more technically sophisticated generation than previous generations Characteristics of new generation Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  33. Digital natives / Digital immigrants Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  34. Google has become their reference desk (Oblinger and Hawkins, 2006) They believe they know how to search by typing words into Google They want single search boxes like Amazon and Google which give instant satisfaction They find library databases too difficult and have no interest in learning about Boolean logic (Godwin, 2006) Google generation Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  35. Internet generation • They navigate the web by trial and error and ignore manuals and help sheets • They believe that everything is on the Web (Salo, 2006) • They think that what is written down and on the web must be correct • They are either confused or ignorant about ethical issues of the content they are using • They cut and paste rather than read and digest what they find • They don’t want to consult a librarian • Wikipedia has become their primary reference source (Godwin, 2006) • They are now using Web 2.0 tools to create web content Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  36. Internet generation Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  37. Proliferation of e-goverment services and applications • information and services for the citizens and businesses are increasingly in e-form • requires • online information search • online information usage • online communication • use of online forms and documents –electronic documents • electronic signature Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  38. IL skills has never been so crucial Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  39. The necessity of IL education Evidence indicates that students • are entering university without core information literacy skills and abilities such as critical thinking, decision making and self directed learning • leave the university without the necessary transferable skills to cope in an information based society • are not picking up information literacy skills on their own Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  40. Conclusions: IL is a transversal competency • valueable for both individuals and societies • personal development and empowerment • highly skilled workforce • strong societies • usefull in multiple areas of life (wide variety of context) • educational • social • occupational • personal • important for everyone, not just for specialists • students • professionals • layman • elderly • unemployed Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  41. Conclusions & Suggestions • Today IL skills are required by • educational organizations • accreditation organizations • employers in the workplace for organizational success • society, which needs an informed citizenry that is capable of making well-reasoned and well-founded decisions • Measures should be taken to equip every individual in the socity with IL skills Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  42. Suggestions: Key players • educational institutions • K12, higher education, vocational education • libraries • academic, school, public • employers • in-service training • governmental organizations • policy makers • non-governmental organizations • professional associations Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  43. References • ALA. (2000). Information literacy: a position paper on information problem solving. Wisconsin: Wisconsin Educational Media Association. • ALA Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. (1989). Final report. Chicago:ALA. • Bundy, A. (ed). (2004). Australian and New Zealand Information Literacy Framework principles, standards and practise (2nd ed). Adeliane: Australian and New Zealand Institute for Information Literacy. • Friedman, J. L. (2005). The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. • Godwin, P. (2006). Information literacy in the age of amateurs: How Google and Web 2.0 affect librarians’ support of information literacy. • Godwin, P. (2007). The Web 2.0 challenge to Information Literacy.INFORUM 2007: 13th Conference on Professional Information Resources, Prague, May 22-24, 2007. • Godwin, P. & Parker, J. (2008). Information literacy meets Library 2.0. London: Facet. • Lyman, P. & Varian, H. R.(2003). How much information? Ann Arbor,MI: University of Michigan. • Maness, J. M. (2006). Library 2.0 theory: Web 2.0 and its implications for libraries. Webology, 3(2). http://www.webology.ir/2006/v3n2/a25.html • Oblinger, D. G. & Hawkins, B. L. (2006). The myth about student competency ”our students are technologically competent”. Educause Review, 41(2). http://www.educause.edu/apps/er/erm06/erm0627.asp • Rychen, D. S. and Salganik, L. H. (eds.). (2003). Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society. • Rychen, D. S. and Salganik, L. H. (eds.) (2001). Defining and selecting key competencies. • Salganik, L. H., Rychen, D. S., Moser, U., and J. Konstant, J. (1999). Projects on competencies in the OECD context: Analysis of theoretical and conceptual foundations. • Salo, D. (2006). Design speaks. Library Journal, 15 Oct. 2006. • Secker, J. (2008). Social software, libraries and distance learners: literature review. London: University of London • Valenza, J. (2006). Web 2.0 meets information fluency. Joyce Valenza’s NeverEnding Seacr, blog. http://joycevalenza.edublogs.org/tag/information-fluency/ • Rockman, I. F. (2004). Integrating information literacy into the higher education curriculum: practical models for transformation. San Francisco: John Wiley. • Snavely, L. ve Cooper, N. (1997). The information literacy debate. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 23(1), 9-13. Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012

  44. Prof. Dr. Serap Kurbanoğlu Hacettepe University Department of Information Management Questions! Literacy and Society, Culture, Media & Education Conference, Ghent, Belgium, 9-11 February 2012