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System Integration (Cont.). Week 7 – Lecture 2. Approaches. Information transfer Interface Database replication Data federation Business process integration. Interface approach. Fixed format – any minor changes requires changes to both systems

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System integration cont

System Integration (Cont.)

Week 7 – Lecture 2


  • Information transfer

    • Interface

    • Database replication

    • Data federation

  • Business process integration

Interface approach
Interface approach

  • Fixed format – any minor changes requires changes to both systems

  • Comma separated – bit more flexible, but still changes are usually required at both ends

  • Operations have to manage the timing

System 2

System 1

Interface files

System 3

Database replication
Database replication

  • Uses the DBMS facilities to replicate data as changes occur

System 1

System 2

Two current methods
Two current methods

  • Proprietary hub & spoke based middleware

    • Mercator

    • MQSeries Integrator

  • Publish and Subscribe middleware and XML using a Message broker bus

    • Java Messaging Service (JMS) part of J2EE

    • MSMQ – from Microsoft

  • These approaches may well merge, but closer to the Publish & subscribe approach

Hub based

Publish & Subscribe

Proprietary hub based middleware
Proprietary Hub based middleware

  • EAI originated in the MOM market

  • The connector is often provided by the application supplier but may have to be coded for legacy systems

  • The EAI provides

    • translation for data heterogeneity,

    • rules engine that can process or trigger an event

    • transport mechanism – usually IBM’s MQ Series,

    • and is usually asynchronous

    • transaction queue

Eai is fast developing
EAI is fast developing

  • Richer application servers (hub)

    • Facilities for interface definition

    • Business rules for converting data

    • Fail over protection

    • Database access

    • Different transport models

  • Use of XML as a data definition standard

  • Closer to real time integration with publish and subscribe model

  • Document definition language
    Document definition language

    • SGML developed by ISO prior to the Web, but is considered too complex for everyday use

    • HTML developed as a presentation language for the Web is a subset of SGML

    • XML has been developed by W3C to better describe the internal structure of a document. It is also a subset of SGML

    • Because it does “self describe” the content of a document it has become accepted as the standard for the definition of data being transferred between applications.

    • ANSI’s EDI was also considered too complex for general use


    • Is not a single pre-defined language but a language for describing other customised languages

    • It allows the creation of DTDs (Document Type Descriptions) now replaced by Schemas

    • A DTD consists of a DOCTYPE and ELEMENT definitions

    • These allow a program to validate the syntax of a document

    A simple XML example

    <product><model>P266 Laptop</model><dealer>Friendly Computer Shop</dealer><price>$1438</price></product>


    • The data is all ANSII/Unicode text thus can be read by any machine

    • Parsers can be written in any language

    • Tags can be created for the definition, transmission, validation and interpretation of data

    • However XML by itself does not provide all of the elements needed

    Xml continued
    XML (continued)

    • XML documents can contain other documents, thus XML schemas are being defined to act as an envelope as part of a transport protocol. SOAP is an example.

    • W3C is also developing a XML schema. These will make it easier to define links between applications.

    Specific uses of xml
    Specific uses of XML

    • Various industry groups are defining XML architectures for specific purposes:

      • OASIS Organisation for Advancement of Structured Information Standards

      • W3C – OASIS & W3C are cataloging XML specifications, and products

      • RosettaNet is an industry consortium advocating open e-Business standards

    • There are Finance and other Industry specific XML transaction definitions

    • IBM have added XML support to MQ Series

    • Microsoft include XML and SOAP in their BizTalk

    There is a down side
    There is a down side

    • It is verbose

    • & thus costs bandwidth