individual behavior and learning l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Individual Behavior and Learning

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 26

Individual Behavior and Learning - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 122 Views
  • Uploaded on

2. C H A P T E R. Individual Behavior and Learning. T W O. Individual Behavior and Learning. Four factors that affect individual behavior in organizations: Drive Behavior Motivation Ability Provide opportunities and constraints Role perceptions Situational Contingencies.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Individual Behavior and Learning' - quade


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
individual behavior and learning2
Individual Behavior and Learning
  • Four factors that affect individual behavior in organizations:
  • Drive Behavior
    • Motivation
    • Ability
  • Provide opportunities and constraints
    • Role perceptions
    • Situational Contingencies
model of individual behavior

Role

Perceptions

Motivation

Ability

Situational

Contingencies

Model of Individual Behavior

Individual

Behavior and

Performance

employee motivation
Employee Motivation
  • Forces within a person that drive his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior
  • Direction - goal oriented
  • Intensity - amount of effort
  • Persistence - continuing effort
ability
Ability
  • Natural Aptitudes
    • based on talents, size, capabilities
    • cannot be learned, or acquired
  • Learned Capabilities
    • can be taught and learned
    • physical and mental skills
  • Competency vs Person Job Fit
    • Generic competencies not specific task abilities
assessing competencies at emc
Assessing Competencies at EMC

When EMC was about to dramatically expand its work force, an executive team at the enterprise storage products firm developed an “Employee Success Profile.” This list of generic competencies represented the traits of successful employees, such as goal-orientation and integrity.

Courtesy of EMC Corp.

roles
Roles
  • Role Perceptions - beliefs about what behaviors are appropriate or necessary in a particular situation, including job tasks, relative importance, and preferred behaviors to accomplish those tasks
  • Role Problems
    • Role Overload
    • Role Conflict
    • Role Ambiguity
situational contingencies
Situational Contingencies
  • Environmental Factors outside of employee control that constrain or facilitate their behavior and/or performance
    • time, people, resources, working conditions, customers
types of work related behaviors
Types of Work-Related Behaviors
  • Joining the organization
  • Remaining with the organization
  • Maintaining work attendance
  • Performing required job duties
    • In-role performance
  • Organizational citizenship behavior
    • Extra-role performance
joining organizations
Joining Organizations
  • Applying, Interviewing, Hiring, Socialization into the organization
  • Often driven by external factors:
    • money, prestige of organization, etc.
  • Has changed with technology
socialization into the organization
Socialization into the organization
  • Learning the history of the organization
  • Examining and understanding the structure of the organization
  • Learning the culture and atmosphere
remaining with the organization
Remaining with the Organization
  • Difficult to keep employees with low unemployment rates
  • Job Satisfaction
    • Satisfaction does not motivate but...
    • Job Dissatisfaction cause someone to leave
  • Things like money become less motivating and become areas of possible dissatisfaction
remaining cont
Remaining cont...
  • Organizational Commitment - the drive to remain with an organization
  • Three aspects
    • Affective - liking your organization
    • Normative - feeling an obligation toward an organization
    • Continuance - remaining with an organization for lack of another option
in role performance
In-Role Performance
  • Task performance - goal-directed activities that are under the individual’s control
  • Physical and mental behaviors
  • Most can be measured and controlled
  • This is what we get paid for
extra role behavior
Extra-Role Behavior
  • Deviant Behavior - behaviors detrimental to the organization, the individual, and others
    • Examples: ??
  • Organizational Citizenship - behavior above and beyond in-role requirements that in the aggregate promote individual, organizational, and stakeholder performance
  • Influenced by many factors including:
    • individual beliefs, fairness perceptions, group characteristics, management behaviors
definition of learning
Definition of Learning
  • A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment.
behavior modification
Behavior Modification
  • We “operate” on the environment
    • alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences.
  • Operant versus respondent behaviors
  • Law of effect
    • likelihood that an operant behavior will be repeated depends on its consequences
a b cs of ob modification

Antecedents

What happens

before behavior

Behavior

What person

says or does

Consequences

What happens

After behavior

Attendance

bonus system

is announced

Employee

attends

scheduled

work

Employee

receives

attendance

bonus

A-B-Cs of OB Modification

Example

contingencies of reinforcement
Contingencies of Reinforcement

Consequence

is Introduced

No

Consequence

Consequence

is Removed

Behavior

Increases/

Maintained

Positive

reinforcement

Negative

reinforcement

Punishment

Extinction

Punishment

Behavior

Decreases

schedules of reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Continuous reinforcement- after every behavior
      • good for starting behaviors
      • drastic fall of after some time
  • Fixed
    • Fixed interval- after set amount of time
    • Fixed ratio- based on a set # of behaviors
  • Variable
    • Variable interval- average time, but no pattern
    • Variable ratio- average number of behaviors, no pattern
ob modification limitations
OB Modification Limitations
  • Can’t reinforce non-observable behavior
  • Reinforcer tends to satiate
  • Variable ratio schedule is a form of gambling
  • Ethical concerns about perceived manipulation
learning through feedback
Learning through Feedback
  • Any information about consequences of our behavior
  • Clarifies role perceptions
  • Corrective feedback improves ability
  • Positive feedback motivates future behavior
multi source 360 degree feedback

Supervisor

Customer

Project

leader

Co-worker

Co-worker

Subordinate

Subordinate

Subordinate

Multi-Source (360 Degree) Feedback

Evaluated

Employee

giving feedback effectively
Giving Feedback Effectively

Specific

Effective

Feedback

Relevant

Frequent

Credible

Timely

social learning theory bandura 1990
Social Learning Theory(Bandura, 1990)
  • Cognitive and environmental process combine to facilitate learning
  • Behavioral modeling, Vicarious Learning
    • Observing and modeling behavior of others
  • Learning behavior consequences
    • Observing consequences that others experience
  • Self-reinforcement
    • Reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control
  • Rewards signal information about self
learning through experience
Learning Through Experience
  • Benefits of experiential learning
    • Helps acquire tacit knowledge/skills
    • Allows implicit learning
  • Practicing experiential learning
    • Reward experimentation
    • Recognize mistakes as part of learning
    • Action learning -- investigating a real problem
  • Success experience increase self-efficacy