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INDIVIDUAL LEARNING. Dr. K. Sivapalan. Teaching and Learning. What is learning?. What is teaching?. Acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude Learning results in change of behavior Done by the student and the student only Starts at 35 weeks of gestation and never ends Wisdom is acquired.

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Individual learning


Dr. K. Sivapalan.


Teaching and learning
Teaching and Learning

What is learning?

What is teaching?

  • Acquiring knowledge, skills and attitude

  • Learning results in change of behavior

  • Done by the student and the student only

  • Starts at 35 weeks of gestation and never ends

  • Wisdom is acquired

  • Trying to impart knowledge, skills and attitude.

  • Teaching may result in learning or not.

  • Done by the teacher, books, other students, etc.

  • Starts on admission and ends with certification

  • Can we teach wisdom ?


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Teaching methods
Teaching Methods.

  • Lectures.

  • Practicals

  • Tutorials

  • Giving objectives.

  • Examination.


How we learn ehk fw fk tpjk
HOW WE LEARN.ehk; fw;Fk; tpjk;

  • 1 % THROUGH TASTE – Rit.

  • 2% THROUGH TOUCH – njhLif.

  • 3% THROUGH SMELL – kzk;.

  • 11% THROUGH HEARING – Nfl;ly;.

  • 83% THROUGH SIGHT – ghu;it.


Processing after learning
Processing after Learning

  • REM sleep stimulates the brain regions used in learning.

  • This would explain why infants spend much more time in REM sleep than adults.


Reward and punishment in learning and memory
Reward and Punishment in Learning and Memory

  • Stimuli that cause neither of these are not remembered.

  • The limbic system has much to do with selecting the information to be learnt and thrown away.

  • About 99% of the input is thrown away and only 1% is learnt.


Reward and punishment
Reward and Punishment

  • Also described as satisfaction or aversion.

  • Stimulation of the reward centre satisfies the animal.

  • Stimulation of punishment centers cause terror, pain, fear, defense, or escape reactions.

  • Excessive stimulation of reward centers can generate sense of punishment.

  • Excessive stimulation of punishment centers can make the animal sick and even lead to death.

  • ? Teacher’s Pressure, ?parental pressure at 5th ,11th and 13th standards.


Conditioned reflexes
Conditioned Reflexes.

  • Salivation on placement of food is a normal reflex.[meat is unconditioned stimulus- US]

  • In Pavlov’s experiment, bell is conditioned stimulus [CS].

  • Several stimuli can be conditioned.

  • If CS is repeated without US, extinction or internal inhibition occurs.

  • If it is disturbed by external stimuli, external inhibition occurs.

  • Reinforcing the CS from time to time can keep the reflex indefinitely.


Operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning.

  • Animal is trained to “operate” in order to obtain reward or avoid punishment.

  • US is reward or punishment.

  • CS is the stimulus that signals and alerts the animal to perform the task.

  • If eating is coupled with unpleasant feeling by injection or electrical stimulus conditioning occurs which can be very strong. [food aversion]

  • Survival value of this is avoidance of poisoning.


Why learn
Why learn?

  • ? To obtain certificate for jobs

  • ?Financial benefits

  • ?social recognition

  • ?self benefits

  • ?social benefits

  • ?[justifying dominant persons needs]

  • ?natural instinctual behaviour


Learn what
Learn what?

  • Cognitive- such as learning to recall facts, to analyze, and to solve a problem

  • Psychomotor- such as learning to perform the correct steps in a dance, learning to swim, learning to ride a bicycle, or drive a car

  • Affective- such as learning how to like someone, "to hate sin", to love one's country (patriotism), to worship God, or to move on after a failed relationship.



  • It is a tendency to respond to various aspects

  • Directional- favourable direction

  • Based in knowledge component

  • Linked to feelings or emotion

  • Linked to stable [core] factors

  • Enduring character over a period of time

  • Susceptible to change


Learning methods
Learning Methods.

  • Listening actively – lectures, tutorials etc.

  • Reading.

  • Writing notes.

  • Discussions- tutorials, approach teachers, peer groups, seniors.

  • Answering.

  • Experimenting and reasoning.

  • Experience and participation.

  • Dealing with patients and people.

  • Port folioing


Assist learning
Assist learning

  • Lecture

  • Tutorial

  • Practical

  • Library

  • Facilitate discussion

  • Facilitate self learning

  • Are the above enough to fulfill the vision and mission of the university?

  • Do the examinations signify satisfactory fulfilment of the objectives


What we remember ehk epidtpy itj jpug gj
WHAT WE REMEMBER.ehk; epidtpy; itj;jpUg;gJ

  • 10% OF WHAT WE READ – thrpg;gJ.

  • 20% OF WHAT WE HEAR – Nfl;gJ.

  • 30% OF WHAT WE SEE – ghu;g;gJ.

  • 50% OF WHAT WE SEE AND HEAR – ghu;g;gJk; Nfl;gJk;.

  • 80% OF WHAT WE SAY – nrhy;tJ

  • 90% OF WHAT WE SAY AND DO – nrhy;tJk; nra;tJk;.


Learning and retention qa council

Lecture- 5%

Reading- 10%

Audio-visual- 20%

Demonstration- 30%

Discussion group- 50%

Practice by doing- 75%

Teach others / immediate use of learning – 90%


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  • A study in rats showed that certain nerve-signaling patterns which the rats generated during the day were repeated during deep sleep.

  • This pattern repetition may help encode memories and improve learning.

  • A napping study that involved 33 undergraduate students revealed that a nap resulted in waking up with sharper memory

  • Some research findings suggest that REM sleep facilitates proliferation of granule cells in the Hippocampus – [organ that processes memory]


Activating memory gene in sleep
Activating Memory Gene in Sleep

  • Exposure to a "memorable" environment turns on a gene called zif-268 that is associated with synapses between nerve cells.

  • Zif-268 turned off during NREM sleep in all rats.

  • During REM sleep, zif-268 turned on in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of exposed to enriched environments and not in controls.

  • This retrieval of zif-268 activity during REM sleep may couple with other reactivated brain mechanisms to "process" memories of novel experiences.

  • Such processing may in turn prove important for cementing the memories acquired while awake.


Basis of memory
Basis of Memory.

  • The key to memory is the strength of selected synapses.

  • It involves protein synthesis during conversion of short term memory into long term memory.

  • Protein deficiency is associated with poor memory.


Forms of memory
Forms of Memory

  • Short-term memory

  • Working memory

  • Long term memory

  • Explicit memory

  • Implicit memory


Short term memory and working memory
Short-term Memory and Working Memory

  • Lasts for seconds to hours during which processing in hippocampus or elsewhere lays down long term memory.

  • Memory traces are subject to disruption by trauma and drugs.

  • Working memory is a form of short term memory.

  • It keeps information for very short periods while the individual plans actions on it.


Long term memory
Long term Memory

  • Involves changes in synaptic strength.

  • Stores memories for years or sometimes for life.

  • Memory traces are remarkably resistant to disruption.

  • Involves protein systhesis.

  • Importance of good nutrition for good learning and memory.


Explicit memory
Explicit Memory

  • Also called declarative and recognition memory.

  • It is associated with consciousness or at least awareness.

  • Events [episodic], rules, words and language [semantic]

  • Dependant on hippocampus and parts of temporal lobe.


Implicit memory
Implicit Memory

  • Does not involve awareness

  • Also called nondeclarative or reflexive memory.

  • Includes skills, habits, and conditioned reflexes. [? Attitudes]

  • It does not involve hippocampus. [?where]

  • Explicit memory can become implicit once it is learnt thoroughly.



  • Repetition.

  • Association.[ mnemonics]

  • Reasoning.


Principles of learning
Principles of learning

  • Learning is individual matter

  • Degree and speed of learning are related to motivation

  • Learning is more efficient when experience has meaning [relevent]

  • Learning is more efficient with feedback


Ways of learning
Ways of learning

  • Trial and error

  • Intuition

  • Conditioning

  • Social modelling

  • Scientific method


Types of learning
Types of learning

  • Simple non-associative learning- Habituation, Sensitization

  • Associative learning- Operant conditioning, Classical conditioning

  • Imprinting

  • Observational learning

  • Play

  • Enculturation

  • Multimedia learning

  • e-Learning and Augmented Learning

  • Rote learning

  • Informal learning

  • Formal learning

  • Nonformal learning

  • Tangential Learning

  • Dialogic Learning


Learning skills
Learning Skills

  • Performance and performance only


Learning attitudes
Learning attitudes

  • Observation

  • Group pressure

  • Select people who want to do the same

  • Reward and punishment


For effective learning and remembering
For effective Learning [and remembering]

  • The student should,

  • Engage in learning actively

  • Should used a variety of learning methods depending on the aspect to be developed.

  • Should develop own notes or data base on all learnt activities, practise skills and express attitudes.

  • Express the learnt aspects and get feed back from teachers, peers, patients, public etc depending on the application.