The New Republic 1789-1816. How did the United States build a government, expand its territory, and conduct foreign policy in its early years?. Government and Party Politics Chapter 6, Section 1. How did debate over the role of government lead to the formation of political parties?.
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The New Republic1789-1816 How did the United States build a government, expand its territory, and conduct foreign policy in its early years?
Government and Party PoliticsChapter 6, Section 1 How did debate over the role of government lead to the formation of political parties?
Government and Party Politics Sec 1: Government and Party Politics Building the Federal Government Main Idea:The new government started out with enormous problems, including a large national debt, a small military, Spain’s efforts to keep trade closed along the Mississippi River, and British forts still maintained along the Great Lakes. Important tasks for the new republic included electing a president, and setting up the judiciary and Cabinet. Hamilton’s Plans Stir Debate Main Idea:As a Federalist, Hamilton believed that a strong centralized government was necessary to preserve the Union. However, as he developed plans for paying off the new nation’s great debts, his plans received fierce and vocation opposition from Antifederalists. Opposing Hamilton Main Idea: Opposition to Hamilton’s plans grew steadily in the South, where the states’ income from agriculture enabled them to pay their share of the country’s debts. A Two-Party System Emerges Main Idea: The federal government, headed by Washington and Hamilton, sought to secure its power and authority. Meanwhile the opposition, led by Madison and Jefferson, grew stronger. Continued…
Government and Party Politics (continued…) Sec 1: Government and Party Politics (con’t) Witness History: The First Inaugural Note Taking: Reading Skill: Summarize Chart: Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt Color Transparencies: The First President Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion Infographic: Political Parties Grow History Interactive: Political Parties Grow Progress Monitoring Transparency
Reading Skill: Summarize NOTE TAKING Note Taking: Reading Skill: Summarize
Problems Faced by the New Government • Huge war debt from the Revolutionary War • No permanent capital • No federal officers beyond Washington, John Adams, and the newly elected Congress
First Inauguration • The oath of office was administered in New York City • George Washington repeated the oath of office of President • Inauguration: official swearing-in ceremony • Cabinet: leaders of the executive departments of the federal government
President Washington • Administration: staff in the executive branch • Precedent: something done or said that becomes an example, rule, or tradition • Established a tone of dignity; Washington believed that parties and pomp were necessary to command the respect of the world • Elected to second term in 1792 • Tradition of being elected for only two terms
Leaders • President: George Washington • Vice President: John Adams
The First President TRANSPARENCY Transparency: The First President
Setting Up the Judiciary • Constitution called for Supreme Court and smaller ones • Left details of organization to Congress • Judiciary Act of 1789 – system of courts • Thirteen federal district courts • John Jay was first Chief Justice of the U.S.
Government Affairs • Foreign affairs: relations with foreign countries; the Secretary of State heads the State Department and coordinated U.S. involvement with foreign countries • Domestic affairs: Issues relating to a country’s internal affairs
Cabinet • Cabinet: officials selected by the President to head the major departments of the executive branch and to advise the President • Attorney General: Edmund Randolph • Secretary of War: Henry Knox • Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Thomas Jefferson • Planter, lawyer, and diplomat; had served several years as ambassador to France • Writer, inventor, and violinist • Founded the University of Virginia
Alexander Hamilton • Brilliant man • Private secretary to General Washington • Believed that governmental power could accomplish great things
Hamilton and Jefferson Debate • Hamilton and Jefferson in Conflict • Hamilton: strong central government led by wealthy, educated • Jefferson: strong state, local government; people’s participation • Hamilton has Northern support; Jefferson has Southern, Western • Hamilton’s Economic Plan • U.S. owes millions to foreign countries, private citizens • Plan—pay foreign debt, issue new bonds, assume states’ debt • Some Southern states have paid debts, against taxes to pay for North
Hamilton’s Program • Supported strong national power • Little faith in the people • Felt that government needed to direct the development of the American economy • Hamilton’s Plan: take on Revolutionary War debts of states • Wanted to charter a Bank of the U.S.
Deal • Southern states would support the debt plan, if northern states would support the plan to locate the capital in the South • Hamilton’s strategy: - Creditors owed money by the government did not want government to collapse - Creditors were concerned with the future of the U.S. so they would get paid • Set up a budget payment plan: sell government bonds
Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt CHART Chart: Hamilton’s Plan for Restructuring Debt
Hamilton’s Opponents • Washington sided with Hamilton • Thomas Jefferson resigned from the Cabinet in 1793. • Believed that Hamilton was betraying the spirit of the Revolution • Had more faith in the people
Interpretation of Constitution • Strict construction – government should not do anything unless specified in the Constitution • Loose construction – government could do anything that was not forbidden in the Constitution
Payment Plan • Tariff enacted in 1789 to tax imported goods to raise money • 1791, congress placed a tax on whiskey • Fund set up to pay creditors slowly, with interest
Whiskey Rebellion • Corn made into whiskey • Used as a kind of currency • Rebels closed courts and attacked tax collectors • 1794, army of 12,000 men put down the rebellion in Pennsylvania to demonstrate the power of the government
Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion TRANSPARENCY Analyzing Political Cartoons: The Whiskey Rebellion
Political Parties Grow INFOGRAPHIC Infographic: Political Parties Grow
Democratic Republicans • Stood for a more democratic republic • Along with Federalists, they became the first political parties: a group of people who seek to win elections and hold public office in order to control government policy and programs
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 1
The Struggle Over Foreign Policy Chapter 6 Section 2 How did foreign policy challenges affect political debate and shape American government?
Sec 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy The Struggle Over Foreign Policy Conflict in the Ohio Valley Main Idea:From the forts they maintained along the Great Lakes, the British supplied the Miami Indians and their allies with arms and ammunition. The British hoped to limit American settlement in the Northwest Territory. This led to violent conflict. American Relations With Europe Main Idea:While the British were helping Native Americans take a stand against the United States, Americans became embroiled in the first major foreign policy event of its short history: the French Revolution. The Parties Debate Foreign Policy Main Idea:The Federalists and Antifederalists conflicted over many issues concerning government power. A crisis in France briefly united the nation, but the Alien and Sedition Acts and the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions soon revealed the party divisions once again. The Election of 1800 Main Idea:Complications in the election of 1800 forced the House of Representatives to choose between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. Burr had been Jefferson’s running mate, and both men won 73 electoral votes. To avoid another electoral crisis, in 1804 the Constitution was amended to require electors to vote separately for President and Vice President. Continued…
The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (continued…) Sec 2: The Struggle Over Foreign Policy (con’t) Witness History: A Great Orator Speaks Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details Color Transparencies: The XYZ Affair Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act Map: Presidential Election of 1800 Progress Monitoring Transparency
Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details Reading Skill: Identify Supporting Details NOTE TAKING
Analyzing Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act Analyzing Political Cartoons: Fighting Over the Sedition Act TRANSPARENCY
French Revolution • 1789 French people overthrew King Louis XVI • During the Reign of Terror, thousands of people were executed, including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette
War • Federalists opposed the French Revolution, while Jefferson and his supporters thought of it as an extension of the American Revolution • War broke out between Great Britain and France • America neutral
Jay’s Treaty • Washington sided with Britain in war because of British navy • Britain agreed to leave the forts in Northwest Territory • Expanded trade, but did not solve ship problem of stopping American ships to search for British subjects • Lost support of many Americans
Washington was famous for his honesty, dignity, an self-control He was very popular in his first four years Problems clouded his second term Many distrusted the government Many disliked Hamilton’s economic plans Jefferson resigned in 1793 Divisions in the government developed Washington’s Legacy
Capital City • First government was in New York City • Capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790 • Residence Act of 1790: 10-square-mile stretch of land on Virginia-Maryland border • District of Columbia • Benjamin Banneker: surveyor • Pierre-Charles L’Enfant developed the city plan with broad streets, the White House for the President’s residence, and the Capitol building for Congress; moved in 1800
U.S. Response to Events in Europe Reactions to the French Revolution • Federalists pro-British; Democratic-Republicans pro-French • Washington declares neutrality,will not support either side • Edmond Genêt, French diplomat, violates diplomatic protocol Treaty with Spain • Spain negotiates with Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain • Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, or Treaty of San Lorenzo, signed: - Spain gives up claims to western U.S. - Florida-U.S. boundary set at 31st parallel - Mississippi River open to U.S. traffic
Washington’s Farewell Address • “[A system of political parties] agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, [and] foments [stirs up] occasional riot and insurrection.” 1796
Election of 1796 • Washington set a precedent of serving two terms • John Adams ran against Thomas Jefferson. • Adams elected with Jefferson his Vice President (from different political parties)
PM TRANSPARENCY Progress Monitoring Transparency Progress Monitoring Transparency: Section 2
John Adams • Second President • Lacked the prestige of Washington • Rise of political parties • Threat of war from abroad with the French over Jay’s Treaty • French began seizing American ships in French harbors
XYZ Affair • French were seizing American ships • X, Y, and Z were French agents sent by Tallyrand to demand a bribe from America to see him • Americans returned home • Undeclared war with France
Transparency: The XYZ Affair The XYZ Affair TRANSPARENCY
Adams Provokes Criticism First Party-Based Elections • 1796, Federalist John Adams elected president - Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican, is vice-president • Result of sectionalism, placing regional interests above nation Adams Tries to Avoid War • French see Jay’s Treaty as violation of alliance; seize U.S. ships • XYZ Affair—French officials demand bribe to see foreign minister • Congress creates navy department; Washington called to lead army • Undeclared naval war rages between France, U.S. for two years
Alien Act • President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S.
Sedition Act • Persons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the American government or its officials could be jailed or fined