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Safety and Security Glazing. John Agnew Chairman GGF Glazing Executive Independent Glass. Security Glazing: Agenda. 1) GGF Introduction 2) Blast mitigation - blast load characteristics - performance requirements - real life examples 3) Impact resistance - types of impact

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Safety and Security Glazing


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    1. Safety and Security Glazing John Agnew Chairman GGF Glazing Executive Independent Glass

    2. Security Glazing: Agenda 1) GGF Introduction 2) Blast mitigation - blast load characteristics - performance requirements - real life examples 3) Impact resistance - types of impact - performance capabilities - real life examples 601 Lexington Avenue, Entrance, USA

    3. Blast Loading - characteristics - noise - heat - shock wave - debris - rapid impact 27 tonne device, Australia

    4. Overpressure [Nm-2] - typical wind load (UK) = 1200 Nm-2 - typical overpressure = 50 x 103 Nm-2 to 2.8 x 106 Nm-2 - typical duration » 30 msec to 3.5 msec Blast Loading – characteristics (+ve phase) 27 tonne detonation

    5. Impulse [Nm-2.msec] - measure of the total ‘push’ of the blast wave - typical impulse values = 300 x 103 Nm-2.msec to 1.5 x 106 Nm-2.msec Blast Loading – characteristics (+ve phase) 27 tonne detonation

    6. Negative Phase Characteristics - lower magnitude overpressure - longer duration - possible interaction with elastic rebound of glazing Blast Loading – characteristics (-ve phase) 27 tonne detonation

    7. Device Distance 50m 25m 19m Overpressure [kPa] 100Kg 28.0 85.0 152.0 Impulse (Ir) [kPa.msec] 100Kg 255.0 537.0 729.0 Overpressure [kPa] 200Kg 39.0 137.0 266.0 Impulse (Ir) [kPa.msec] 200Kg 410.0 875.0 1196.0 Overpressure [kPa] 500Kg 64.0 288.0 616.0 Impulse (Ir) [kPa.msec] 500Kg 733.0 1682.0 2324.0 Blast Loading – characteristics Overpressure & Impulse relative to Device Size & Proximity: Rule of Thumb “The bigger the bomb, the higher the over- pressure, the longer the duration.”

    8. Blast Mitigation – performance requirements Effect of Lorry Bomb at 20m… FRAMED BUILDING: Lobby Area BEFORE Clean Up Bishopsgate, London, 1993

    9. Blast Mitigation – performance requirements Effect of Lorry Bomb at 20m… FRAMED BUILDING: Lobby Area AFTER Clean Up Bishopsgate, London, 1993

    10. Blast Mitigation – performance requirements Effect of Lorry Bomb at 20m… FRAMED BUILDING: HSBC Bank HQ, Istanbul, 1993

    11. Blast Mitigation – performance requirements Lorry Bomb Effects on Building…

    12. Blast Mitigation – real life performance Car bomb effects on glazing…

    13. Protection Level Class 1, 2 Very High 3a, 3b High 5 1 4 Medium 2 5 Low 4 3a 3b Blast Mitigation – performance requirements GSA Rating - USA - Level C : Overpressure, 4 psi : Impulse, 28 psi.ms (Airports & Judiciary) • Level D : Overpressure, 10 psi : Impulse, 90 psi.ms (Military & Diplomatic)

    14. Blast Mitigation – performance requirements European codes - Glass in building - Security glazing -Testing and classification of resistance against explosion pressure EN 13541 : 2001 : Shock tube testing for different glass compositions & thicknesses (standard frame and size) - Windows, doors and shutters - Part 1 - Shock tube test EN 13123-1 : Requirements and classification EN 13124-1 : Test method - large devices (100 to 2500 Kg) at significant distances (35 to 50m) - Windows, doors and shutters - Part 2 - Range test EN 13123-2 : Requirements and classification EN 13124-2 : Test method - hand carried devices (3, 12 & 20 Kg) at close range (3 to 5.5m) - Pass/Fail criteria (10mm diameter bar penetration test)

    15. Range Test - (Satchel Bomb) Class Pmax [kPa] i+ [kPa.msec] EXR1 75 105 (3kg at 5m) EXR2 230 165 (3kg at 3m) EXR3 170 225 (12kg at 5.5m) EXR4 360 300 (12kg at 4.0m) EXR5 630 420 (20kg at 4.0m) Blast Mitigation – performance requirements European : EN13124-1 (Classification) / EN 13124-2 (Test Method) Shock Tube Test – (Vehicle Bomb) Class Pmax [kPa] i+ [kPa.msec] EPR1 50 370 EPR2 100 900 EPR3 150 1500 EPR4 200 2200 EN13123-1 (Classification) / EN 13123-2 (Test Method)

    16. ISO 16934: Explosion resistance: Test & classification by Shock Tube Class Pmax [kPa]i+ [kPa.msec]Charge Equiv. ER30(X) 30 170 (30kg at 33m) ER50(X) 50 370 (100kg at 34m) ER70(X) 70 550 (160kg at 33m) ER100(X) 100 900 (500kg at 39m) ER150(X) 150 1500 (1000kg at 41m) ER200(X) 200 2200 (2000kg at 46m) (2500kg at 49m) = EPR1 = EPR2 = EPR3 = EPR4 Blast Mitigation – performance requirements ISO Standards : Load scenario SHOCK TUBE : ISO 16934-2007

    17. International Standard (ISO) Satchel bomb Test Class Pmax [kPa] i+ [kPa.msec] SB1(X) 70 150 SB2(X) 110 200 SB3(X) 250 300 SB4(X) 800 500 SB5(X) 700 700 SB6(X) 1600 1000 SB7(X) 2800 1500 Blast Mitigation – performance requirements ISO Standards : Load scenario SATCHEL : ISO 16933-2007

    18. International Standard (ISO) Vehicle bomb Test Class Pmax [kPa] i+ [kPa.msec]Suitable Framed Product EXV45(X) 30 180 Anti-shatter film EXV33(X) 50 250 Anchored anti-shatter film EXV25(X) 80 380 7.5mm s.b. lam EXV19(X) 140 600 11.3mm s.b. lam EXV15(X) 250 850 15.4mm s.b. lam EXV12(X) 450 1200 20.6mm s.b. lam EXV10(X) 800 1600 30mm s.b. lam (approx) Blast Mitigation – performance requirements ISO Standards : Load scenarioVEHICLEBOMB : ISO 16933-2007

    19. Blast Mitigation – performance requirements ISO Standards : Injury Hazard Guide

    20. Blast Mitigation – secure detailing

    21. Blast Mitigation – secure design Design features to include: - Reglazable from the inside - Cladding system design that allows for easy removal and replacement - Framed structure with a robust core Design features to avoid: - Extensive glazing - Deep surface modeling of facade - Basements that extend beyond the building line - Stone cladding on flexible buildings - Overhanging floors – especially at lower levels - Car parking below or within the building

    22. Impact Loading – Pendulum test BS EN 12600:2002 – Glass in building – Impact test method & classification Typical requirements: 50kg twin tyre impactor 876 x 1938mm test piece Test temperature 200C+/-50C Standard frame & glazing arrangement Drop heights: (Class 3) 190mm (Class 2) 450mm (Class 1) 1200mm Mode of breakage: Type A – numerous cracks forming separate large fragments Type B – numerous cracks but no separation Type C – disintegration occurs

    23. Impact Loading – Pendulum test BS EN 12600:2002 – Glass in building – Impact test method & classification Performance classification: a (b) j ahighest drop height at which sample did not break, broke with no separation or disintegrated into small particles b mode of breakage j highest drop height at which sample did not break or broke with no separation Examples: 4mm annealed, not classified 6.4mm laminate 2(B)2 4mm Pilkington T glass 1(C)2 6mm Pyroshield Safety 3(B)3 BS EN 12600 dual tyre Impactor,

    24. Impact Loading – Pendulum test BS EN 12600:2002 – Glass in building – Impact test method & classification Typical requirements: 50kg twin tyre impactor 876 x 1938mm test piece Drop heights: (Class 3) 190mm (Class 2) 450mm (Class 1) 1200mm Mode of breakage: Type A – typical of annealed Type B – typical of laminated Type C – typical toughened 6*/16/10 bolted unit, impactor height 900mm

    25. Impact Loading – Pendulum test BS EN 12600:2002 – Glass in building – Impact test method & classification Typical requirements: 50kg twin tyre impactor 876 x 1938mm test piece Drop heights: (Class 3) 190mm (Class 2) 450mm (Class 1) 1200mm Mode of breakage: Type A – typical of annealed Type B – typical of laminated Type C – typical toughened 10*/16/6 bolted unit, impactor height 1200mm

    26. Impact – critical building locations BS 6262-4:2005 – Glass in buildings – Code of practice related to human impact

    27. BS 6262 Part 4 requiresthat a glass meeting aminimum requirementof EN12600 Class 3, & marked as such, is used BS 6262 Part 4 requiresa minimum Class 3 tobe used except if theminimum dimensionexceeds 900 mm, whena Class 2 must be used& marked as such Safety glass is nota requirement here Impact – critical building locations Exceptions: - Panes with a smaller dimension less than 250mm & of area <0.5m2 may be minimum (nom) 6mm thickness not complying with BS EN12600 - Panes forming parts of fronts to shops, showrooms, offices, factories and public buildings, being fully framed may be of equivalent robustness not complying to BS EN 12600 [8mm <1100x1100mmm, 10mm <2250x2250mm, 12mm <4500x4500mm] Critical locations as recommended in BS 6262 Part 4

    28. Impact Loading – manual attack BS EN 356:2000 – Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing & classification of resistance against manual attack Typical requirements: Test piece, 900 x 1100mm 30mm clamped rebate frame Hard body drop test: - 4.11kg, 100mm diameter ball of polished steel - P1A 1500mm (x3) - P2A 3000mm (x3) - P3A 6000mm (x3) - P4A 9000mm (x3) - P5A 9000mm (x9) - No permitted penetration P3A laminated sample – failure at 2nd impact

    29. Impact Loading – manual attack BS EN 356:2000 – Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing & classification of resistance against manual attack Typical requirements: Test piece, 900 x 1100mm 30mm clamped rebate frame Axe test: - 2kg, 40x40mm hammer - 2kg unalloyed steel axe - 900mm handle - P6B 30 to 50 impact - P7B 51 to 70 impact - P8B over 70 - 400 x 400mm hole created EN356 - Axe test rig

    30. Impact Loading – ballistic attack BS EN 1063:2000 – Glass in Building – Security glazing – Testing & classification of resistance against bullet attack Typical requirements: Test piece, 500 x 500mm Qty, 3 test pieces, 3 shots 7 classifications Performance Class: - “NS” (no splinters) No perforation of glazing by bullet & no perforation of witness foil by glass splinters. - “S” (splinters) No perforation of the glazing by bullet but with perforation of witness foil by glass splinters. BSEN 1063 – Classification and test requirements for bullet resistant glazing

    31. Impact Loading – ballistic attack BS EN 1063:2000 – Glass in Building – Security glazing – Testing & classification of resistance against bullet attack BSEN 1063 – Classification and test requirements for bullet resistant glazing

    32. Security Glazing: Summary - When designed correctly, glass and glazing systems can provide considerable protection against blast and impact loading. - Glass can sustain considerable impact without breaking but there are various methods of managing post-breakage behavior if it is necessary. - The performance of the finished glazing system is heavily dependent on the correct specification of both the glass and the support mechanism and should be verified by test.

    33. Further Information • New Guide (launched Jan 2014) • Free copies from the GGF Stand F16 • Electronic Copies also available • Feel free to speak to our Technical experts on the GGF Stand F16