A sentence contains one or more subjects and verbs, and it expresses a complete thought.
The subject tells you who or what the sentence is about,The verb expresses an action or a state of being.
Understanding basic sentence structure will help you write complete sentences and punctuate them correctly.
There are four kinds of sentences in English:1. simple sentences2. compound sentences3. complex sentences4. compound-complex sentences
A Simple Sentenceis one independent clause consisting of at least one subject and at least one verb that expresses one complete idea and stands alone.
S VHe works at Mc Donald’s.S S VHe and I work at Mc Donald’s.S V VHe works and eats at Mc Donald’s.S SV V He and I work and eat at Mc Donald’s.
When you use sentences of varying lengths and types, your writing flows more smoothly and appears more interesting. One way to create this effect is to combine simple sentences into compound sentences
Compound Sentencesare two simple sentences (independent clauses) joined into one.
Coordinating Conjunctionsaddition andContrast butresult soChoice orSurprise yetreason foraddition (negative) nor
Use coordinationMy parents love each other. This year they are taking separate vacations.I study very hard and pay attention in class. I usually do well on tests.
Conjunctive Adverbsaddition also, besides, furthermore, moreover, in additionContrast however, on the other handResult therefore, as a result, consequentlySequence afterward, then, meanwhileComparison likewise, similarlyExample for example, for instance
S V , S VI like coffee, and I like tea.S V ; S VI had a barbecue; the food was delicious.SV ; c.a, S VI like to eat; however, I hate to cook.
Complex Sentencesare one independent clause and at least one dependent clause
Subordination: • Although, even though, whereas • Because, since, as • When, whenever, where, while • Before, after, until, as soon as • If, As if, as
Complex sentences with adverb clauses The hurricane struck while we were at the mall. After the president made his speech, he answered the questions of the reporters.
Complex sentences with noun clauses What you need to do is buy a computer. The students wanted to know when their teacher would return.
Complex sentences with adjective clauses A girl whom I know was recently accepted to Harvard University. The Eiffel Tower, which is located in Paris, is visited by millions of tourists.
Compound-complex Sentencesare sentences with at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
The first baskets were peach baskets, which were attached to the walls of the school gymnasium, and the first basketballs were soccer balls.
Make one sentence.Young people are caught between two cultures. They sometimes suffer.Basketball was invented in the United States. It is now popular all over the world.
Writing in which there are a lot of short sentences is Choppy writing.Short sentences are not errors, but writing too many of them together is not good style. Readers have to work harder to understand the relationship among the ideas because there are no connecting words to help them.
Marie speaks French. Marie grew up in Germany.Sam picked up his pen. He began to freewrite.Yuri had to pay $1.00 fine. Yuri returned his books to the library after the due date.
Green tea is popular in Asia. Black tea is more common in North America.Basketball was invented one hundred years ago. It is a winter sport.I was born in Japan. A big festival takes place there every June.
What types of sentences are these?The meeting was a success; we agreed on everything.Success means different things to different people. Meagan studied hard, so the test was easy for her.
This was my first visit to the international section of the airport, and nothing was familiar.After Vicky watched TV, she went to bed.They don’t understand that I am an artist in my heart.
Transitionsare words, phrases, and sentences that connect your ideas so that your writing move smoothly from one point to another. They can also connect sentences and ideas within a paragraph
Common transitional words • Time: first, then, next, now, soon, finally • Space: inside, above, across, over, further • Importance: above all, best, more important, in fact, worst • Example: for example, for instance, for one thing, one reason • And: additionally, in addition, also
First, we are going to buy groceries for dinner. Then we are going to stop for gas.