Some New Topics • Entropy exemplar – a very endothermic spontaneous reaction • Carbon-60 exemplar • EDTA Titration – analysis of Ca2+and Mg2+ in mineral water • Green Chemistry – Micro-scale Chemistry
Some New Topics An introductory demonstration on ENTROPY Ba(OH)2.8H2O(s) + 2NH4SCN(s) Ba(SCN)2(s) + 2NH3(g) + 10H2O(l) A very endothermic reaction which occurs spontaneously.
Some New Topics Construction of a paper C60 model
Some New Topics Investigation of hardness of water by EDTA titration using commercial brands of mineral water. ‘EVIAN’ Ca2+ 78 mg dm-3 ; Mg2+ 24 mg dm-3 Eriochrome Black T and hydroxynaphthol Blue as indicators
Micro-scale Experiments • Low-cost, environmentally friendly and safe • As an incentive • Providing unique technique
The “shake-down” methodEnables separate runs of an experiment to be performed at the same time. H2O2(aq) + 2I-(aq) + 2H+(aq) I2(aq) + 2H2O(l) Contained liquid does not drop even if the micro-strip is turned upside down Mixing by the “shake-down” method
Micro-scale Experiments Nernst equation and effect of concentration changes on cell e.m.f. Cu/Cu2+; Fe3+/Fe2+ chemical cell Nichrome wire inert electrode
Micro-scale Experiments Water-less reflux and distillation design Freezer blue ‘ice-pack’ Cold ‘stick’
Micro-scale Experiments Micro-heater made by connecting resistors in parallel Clamped vertically
Micro-scale Experiments Distillation cap Set up for reflux Set up for distillation
Micro-scale Experiments Apparatus for boiling point determination Cold ring Determination of b.p.