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New Topics. Coevolution special case between interdependent species Study examples in Pollination Biology best understood examples of coevolution Focus on Role of Natural Selection. Coevolution : reciprocal change driven by the interaction of 2 or more species. Arms race = Plant/Herbivore

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New topics
New Topics

  • Coevolution

    • special case between interdependent species

  • Study examples in PollinationBiology

    • best understood examples of coevolution

  • Focus on Role of NaturalSelection


Coevolution

Coevolution: reciprocal change driven by the interaction of 2 or more species.

Arms race = Plant/Herbivore

Mutualism = symbiotic specialization

Geographic Mosaic Theory

Modern synthesis by John N. Thompson and others.

COEVOLUTION

Gilia tricolor


Pollination

Pollination: Has 3 Components

1.) Receipt of genes ()

2.) Delivery of genes ()

3.) Pollination Vector

Wind or Animal

Pollination

Gilia tricolor


How do pollinators and flowers affect each other

Flowers

Optimize pollination

Minimize costs

make it hard to get pollen & Nectar

Maximize rewards

receive enough of correct pollen

Pollinators

Optimize feeding

Minimize costs

feed easily

Maximize rewards

eat enough pollen or nectar to more than compensate for their effort

How do Pollinators and Flowers affect each other?


Pollination syndromes
Pollination Syndromes

  • Under “right conditions” pollinators can exert selection pressures on floral traits, resulting in floral morphology and structure that may be adaptations to maximize efficiency of pollination.

  • Flowers that are specialized for specific Pollinators … Have a distinct morphology.


Pollination syndromes1
Pollination Syndromes

  • Bird – Great sight! Poor smell.

    • Floral traits:

      • Odorless

      • Large

      • Tubular

      • Often red

      • Large nectaries


Jewelweed, Impatiens sp

Nat. Hist. 5/99.



Pollination syndromes2
Pollination Syndromes

  • Bats – very poor sight, very good smell.

    • Floral traits:

      • Strong odors – musky or fruity

      • large

      • dull colors – white or green

      • often only open at night.


Stenocerus thurberi with Leptonycteris curasoae


Pollination syndromes3
Pollination Syndromes

  • Bees – good sense of sight, smell ok.

    • Floral traits:

      • Blue or yellow (yellow = blue in UV specturm)

      • Distinctive markings = “honey guides” = path to nectaries.

      • Landing pads.



Rosemarinus officinalis with Apis mellifera







References
References

  • http://elib.cs.berkeley.edu/photos/flora/

  • Ethan J. Temeles and Paul W. Ewald. 1999. Fitting the Bill? Natural History. 5(March):52-55.

  • John N. Thompson. 1994. The Coevolutionary Process. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. p376.

  • Peter H.Raven, Ray F. Evert and Susan E. Eichorn. 1999. Biology of Plants. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.P944.

  • Scott A. Hodges and Michael L. Arnold. 1994. Floral and ecological isolation between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubuscens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91:2493-2496.

  • Teresa Audesirk and Gerald Audesirk. 1999. Biology: Life on Earth (5th ed). Prentice-Hall; Upper Saddle River, NJ. P890.


Review of previous topics
Review of Previous Topics

  • Evolution by Natural Selection.

    • “Survival of the Fittest” & much more.

  • Three types of Selection Forces

    • Stabilizing

    • Disruptive

    • Directional


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