Best Practices in Developmental Education: Strengthening your Program and Improving Student Success A Live Webinar for Innovative Educators February 12, 2009 Linda R. Thompson, Ed.D. Director, McNair Scholars Harding University Searcy, AR firstname.lastname@example.org
Today’s Agenda: Or “Are you SURE we can get through all this in one session?” • Brief history of Developmental Education in the U.S. • Our students…who are they? • How is Dev Ed working…or not? • How do we know if what we’re doing is working? • What should we be doing for the best student outcomes?
A Proud History of Access in American Higher Education • 1636: Harvard establishes culture of access by reserving 10% of slots for poor students • 1871: Harvard develops test of writing skills; 50% of applicants fail • 1909: Over 350 colleges offering “How to Study” courses
A Proud History of Access in American Higher Education • 1946: Over a million veterans attend college, supported by the GI Bill • 1960’s & 70’s: Broadening concepts of access • 1980’s to present: Students with disabilities enroll in increasing numbers
EIGHT PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNfrom: Pedagogy and Student Services for Institutional Transformation: Implementing Universal Design in Higher Education; J.L. Higbee and E. Goff, eds., 2008, Regents of the University of Minnesota, CRDEUL, College of Education and Human Development, p. 34 • Create a welcoming classroom • Determine the essential components of a course • Communicate clear expectations • Provide constructive feedback • Explore the use of natural supports for learning
UNIVERSAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN • Design teaching methods that consider diverse learning styles, abilities, ways of knowing and previous experience/back-ground knowledge • Create multiple ways for students to demonstrate their knowledge • Promote interaction among faculty and students
CRLA: DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • A sub-discipline of the field of education concerned with improving performance of students • A field of research, teaching, and practice designed to improve academic performance • A process utilizing principles of developmental theory to facilitate learning
NADE’S DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION Developmental education is a field of practice and research with a theoretical foundation in developmental psychology and learning theory. It promotes the cognitive and affective growth of all learners, at all levels of the learning continuum.
NADE’s DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • Developmental Education is sensitive and responsive to the individual differences and special needs among learners.
NADE’S DEFINITION OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • Developmental Education programs and services commonly address academic preparedness, diagnostic assessment and placement, development of general and discipline-specific learning strategies, and affective barriers to learning.
NADE GOALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • To preserve and make possible educational opportunity for each learner • To develop skills and attitudes necessary to attain academic, career and life goals • To ensure proper placement by assessing level of preparedness for college course work
NADE GOALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • To maintain academic standards by enabling learners to acquire competencies needed for success in mainstream courses • To enhance retention • To promote continued development and applica-tion of cognitive and affective learning theory
EXAMPLES OF STATEMENTS OF THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS • Tutoring Services • Developmental Reading Program • Developmental Coursework Select the one that seems the most appropriate for you and your group, and discuss its merits among you…
Sample Theoretical FrameworkSample #1 HISTORY AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF TUTOR SERVICES • The Peer Tutoring program at *** State College was conceived in the mid-1980s as a support program for students having difficulty in their academic classes. *** students had access to a Math Lab and a Writing Center, but there was no tutorial program for other core academic courses. Funding for the original program came from soft money, and the program was discontinued after one year. The director of the Learning Enrichment Center at that time was committed to the idea of offering free tutorial services to *** students, and in fall 1987 permanent funding was obtained from the institution’s academic vice-president. One of the basic beliefs and rationales for implementing the tutorial program was that it could help with student retention. • Tutorial services were originally offered on a strictly one-on-one basis: students could sign up for a tutor and receive 3-5 hours of tutoring each week. Tutor training was mostly non-existent, but the program was successful for students from the beginning. It was so successful that it was impossible to attract and hire enough qualified tutors to meet student demand. • As the Peer Tutor Coordinator met with the tutors for individual evaluations, concern was expressed that most of the students they were seeing didn’t need intensive one-on-one tutoring. The Coordinator also developed a belief in the theory that students learn best in collaborative settings, and so the focus of tutorial services changed from individual tutoring to a small group model. Space, or a lack thereof, to house the Program was also an issue. It was easier to schedule empty classrooms for group sessions than to find space for one-on-one tutoring. • In the early 1990s, the Coordinator become aware of the CRLA International Tutor Certification program and began to develop a training program for the tutoring staff. The training program has been certified since 1995. • Also in 1995, the Supplemental Instruction program that had been developed at the University of Missouri at Kansas City came to the attention of the Peer Tutor Coordinator. After learning more about SI, the Coordinator attended one of their training workshops. It was evident from the beginning that the theories on which SI was founded were valuable in helping students to learn. Some of the theories behind the SI strategies are:
DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • Who are our students? • How effective is it? • What constitutes success? • What works?
Who are Our Students?Study of Community College Enrollments (Saxon & Boylan) • Scant Research, but shows • Most (2/3) are white • Slightly higher proportion of females • Avg. age @ 23 • Most are single • They are independent, financially • Low-income; many made less than $20,000/year • They commute
Our Students … • Most attend college full-time • Most intend to get a 2-year or 4-year degree • Typically do not receive financial aid • Motivated, but low self-efficacy in academic setting No demographic, economic, or personal characteristics … differ significantly from the typical community college student. (Saxon & Boylan, p. 6, nd)
STUDIES OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION: How are we doing?
%-AGE STUDENTS PASSING DEVELOPMENTAL COURSES WHO PASSED FIRST COLLEGE-LEVEL COURSE IN THE SAME SUBJECT • SUBJECT • Dev Math/Coll Math • Dev English/Coll English • Dev Reading/ Coll Soc. Sci. % PASSING BOTH WITH “C” OR BETTER 77.2% 91.1% 83.0% Boylan, et al.
PERSISTENCE/GRADUATION RATES FOR DEVELOPMENTAL STUDENTS BY INSTITUTIONAL TYPE Institution 2-yr Comm Coll 2-yr Tech Coll 4-yr Public Inst 4-yr Pvt Inst Research Univ Persist/Grad 24% 33.7% 28.4% 40.2% 48.3% Boylan, et al.
Retention & Pass Rates of Developmental StudentsNat’l Study of Dev. Ed. II, RIDE, 20 (4) 2007Gerlaugh, et al., p.2
Institutions using Retention & Pass Rates in Content Areas for EvaluationNat’l Study of Dev. Ed. II, RIDE, 20 (4) 2007Gerlaugh, et al., p.2Developmental Course
Other Services Offered on CampusNat’l Study of Dev. Ed. II, RIDE, 20 (4) 2007Gerlaugh, et al., p.2
Class Size Per SubjectNat’l Study of Dev. Ed. II, RIDE, 20 (4) 2007Gerlaugh, et al., p.2
% of Dev. Courses taught by Full-Time FacultyNat’l Study of Dev. Ed. II, RIDE, 20 (4) 2007Gerlaugh, et al., p.2
% 2-yr. Inst. Mandating PlacementNat’l Study of Dev. Ed. II, RIDE, 20 (4) 2007Gerlaugh, et al., p.2
DEGREE ATTAINMENT OF STUDENTS OF THE NAT’L H.S. CLASS OF 1982 BY AGE 30 AND IMPACT OF REMEDIATION
BACHELOR’S DEGREE ATTAINMENT FOR STUDENTS IN 4-YEAR INSTITUTIONS • Had remedial reading • 1 or 2 remedial courses, no reading • No remediation 39% 60% 69%
Bettinger & Long: Effect of Remedial Mathematics on College Completion in Ohio 4-year Non-Selective Colleges (2004) • Students who placed into remedial math were “somewhat” more likely to drop out or transfer to a 2- year college than “academically-equivalent” students not in remediation. • BUT…It did not lower the likelihood of obtaining a bachelor’s degree.
Effect of Successful Completion of Remedial Mathematics on College Completion in Ohio 4-year Non-Selective Colleges (2004) • Students who successfully completed their remedial mathematics courses were more likely to complete a bachelor’s degree than academically-equivalent students who did not complete remedial math. Bettinger & Long (2004) Cited in Attewell, et al. (2006)
“NEW EVIDENCE ON REMEDIATION”FROM NELS:88Attewell, Lavin, Domina & Levy (2006) • 40% of traditional college students took at least one remedial course • Math (28%) • Writing (18%) • Reading (9%) • Other (9%)
ENROLLMENT IN REMEDIATION BY TYPE OF INSTITUTIONAttewell, Lavin, Domina & Levy (2006) • 2-Year College • Non-selective 4-year • Selective 4-year • Highly-Selective 4-year 58% 31% 14% 2%
NO ONE TO WASTE: OUTCOMES OF SUCCESSFUL COMPLETERS OF REMEDIAL COURSES IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES • Successful completion is the most critical achievement in personal development. • <16% earn an Assoc. or Bach. degree • More than 1/3 earn an occupational associate degree or certificate.
NO ONE TO WASTE: OUTCOMES OF SUCCESSFUL COMPLETERS OF REMEDIAL COURSES IN COMMUNITY COLLEGES • “Following successful remediation, underprepared students do as well in college-level courses as do students who entered academically prepared.” • Successful remedial education students experience positive life developments after completing remediation.
NO ONE TO WASTE: SUCCESSFUL COMPLETERS OF REMEDIATION • Nine years after students complete remedial education: • 98.5% are employed • 90% work in jobs above entry or unskilled levels • Most are in information-based positions/high demand • Only 2% have been convicted of a felony. • “Dramatically” better than the general population with comparable demographics.
PERCENTAGE OF US POPULATION AGE 25 & OLDER BY EDUCATONAL ATTAINMENT (MARCH ‘04)IHEP, 1998
PERCENT US POPULATION AGE > 25 WHO REC’D PUBLIC ASSISTANCE BY EDUCATION AND STATE
PERCENT US POPULATION AGE > 25 WHO DESCRIBE THEIR HEALTH AS VERY GOOD BY EDUCATION AND STATE
PERCENT US POPULATION AGE > 25 WHO REPORTED EVER VOLUNTEERING FOR OR THROUGH AN ORG. BY EDUCATION AND STATE
PERCENT US POPULATION AGE > 25 WHO VOTED IN NOV. 2000 ELECTION, BY EDUCATION AND STATE
LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATIONBoylan , 2002 • The establishment of clearly-specified goals and objectives for developmental programs and courses. • The use of mastery learning approaches. • The provision of a high degree of structure in remedial/developmental courses.
LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • The use of a variety of teaching methods. • The application of sound cognitive/learning theory in the design and delivery of remedial/ developmental courses. • The provision of a centralized or highly coordinated remedial/developmental program.
LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • The use of formative evaluation to guide program development and improvement. • The establishment of a strong philosophy of learning to develop program goals and objectives and to deliver program services.
LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • An underlying program philosophy along with program goals and objectives based on this philosophy • Mandatory assessment • A counseling component integrated into the structure of developmental education
LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • Tutoring performed by well-trained tutors. • Use of computer-based instruction as a supplement to regular classroom activities. • Integration of classroom and laboratory activities. • An institution-wide commitment to the developmental program.
LESSONS FROM THE RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION • Assurance of consistency between exit standards for remedial courses and entry standards for the regular curriculum. • use of learning communities in remedial/developmental instruction.