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Developmental Supervision Using the IDM

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  1. Developmental Supervision Using the IDM John Laux, Ph.D., PCC-s, LICDC School Psychology, Legal Specialties, & Counselor Education The University of Toledo

  2. Discriminate between Clinical Supervision & Developmental Supervision Understand the First Two Stages of Integrated Developmental Model of Supervision IDM

  3. What is Supervision?

  4. Supervision over-seeing, looking over someone’s shoulder to check on them; and also ‘super’ in the sense of outstanding or special, helping someone to extend their professional skills and understanding. http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/supervision/what-is-supervision

  5. Clinical & Developmental Supervision

  6. Clinical & Developmental Supervision Development ongoing professional learning Clinical/performance clinical governance and standard setting.

  7. Clinical & Developmental Supervision • Who does what? • Clinical/performance supervision is the sole domain of the site supervisor • Developmental supervision is done by both the university supervisor and the site supervisor.

  8. Clinical & Developmental Supervision • How to tell them apart: • Who is the focus? • Answer the question, “Are we talking about the client/student or the supervisee?” • Example 1. • I have a high no-show rate after the initial session. How do I increase my productivity? • Susan keeps missing appointments. How can I work to increase her motivation for counseling?

  9. Clinical & Developmental Supervision • Client/student or supervisee? • Example 2. • Richard’s parents want to know how they can improve his study skills both at home and at school. What interventions do you suggest I recommend for these parents? • I am not a parent. I feel comfortable working with students, but I am scared about meeting with parents and guardians.

  10. Clinical & Developmental Supervision • Faculty and graduate assistants do not provide Clinical Supervision. • Why not? • So, what do faculty do during practicum and internship?

  11. IDM Supervision • An Integrated Developmental Model of Supervision -Stoltenberg, McNeil & Delworth

  12. 3 Levels of Development • Level 1 Therapist (Practicum) • Level 2 Therapist (Internship-Newly Licensed- Independence) • Level 3 Therapist (Independence on)

  13. Overarching Structures • Self & Other Awareness • Motivation • Autonomy

  14. Specific Domains • Intervention Skills • Assessment • Interpersonal Assessment • Client Conceptualization • Individual Differences • Theoretical Orientation • Treatment Plans & Goals • Professional Ethics

  15. So You’ve Agreed to Be A Site Supervisor

  16. What Does the Typical Practicum Student Know?

  17. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Self & Other Awareness • About whom is the student thinking upon entering the counseling room?

  18. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Self & Other Awareness • Focus is on personal effectiveness, skills

  19. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Anxiety/fear

  20. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Concerned about supervisor’s evaluation.

  21. Overarching Structures—Level 1 Motivation

  22. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Motivation • Usually high. • Focused on going from beginner to expert. • Want to move from anxiety to comfort. • Want to learn the “best” theory, techniques or approaches.

  23. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Autonomy • Heavily dependent on supervisor • What to do/say in session

  24. Overarching Structures—Level 1 • Autonomy • Heavily dependent on supervisor • How to use supervision

  25. Level 1 Intervention Skills Competence • Want understandable set of skills in a structured framework they can imitate. • Latch on to an orientation & become a devotee (usually 1st one they read or CBT) • Every issue becomes a nail.

  26. Level 1 Assessment Techniques • Tend to prefer interview methods or standardized methods. • Have little critical skills. I.e., fail to consider client response set or motivation.

  27. Level 1 Interpersonal Assessment • Use personal reactions as assessment tool & barometer of data received.

  28. Level 1 Client Conceptualization • Focus is on specific aspects of clients’ story & exclude other relevant data. • Tend to over- or under-pathologize.

  29. Level 1 Individual Differences • to interpret clients’ MC via own cultural lenses. • Assume that if they have common traits then the client’s worldview is the same as their own. OR • Assume that if they have dissimilar traits then the client’s worldview is the vastly different from their own.

  30. Level 1 Theoretical Orientation • Seeking the one-truth. When found, become disciples.

  31. Level 1 Treatment Planning • Difficult to conceptualize treatment from intake to discharge. • Focus is on keeping clients. • Tx planning may be general or cookie cutter/manualized.

  32. Level 1 Treatment Planning • Focus is on keeping clients. Tx planning may be general or cookie-cutter or manualized

  33. Level 1 Professional Ethics • Rigid application & rote memorization. • Need guidance in interpreting and applying.

  34. Supervising the Level 1 Therapist • Structure!!!! • Both supervision & their clinical work.

  35. Supervising the Level 1 Therapist • Break feedback down into manageable/observable chunks.

  36. Supervising the Level 1 Therapist • Simplicity & slow speed.

  37. Supervising the Level 1 Therapist • Encourage self-examination

  38. Supervising the Level 1 Therapist • How? • Observation • Skills training • Role plays • Readings • Group sup • Balance ambiguity • Create conflict • Cont. education

  39. Supervising the Level 1 Therapist • Be supportive • Be prescriptive • Tie theory to diagnosis to treatment • Initiate growth

  40. Transitioning to Level 2 • Practicum to Internship • 100 hours (minimum) under their belt.

  41. Transitioning to Level 2 • Motivation: • may decrease for new approaches/techniques • Autonomy: • may desire more than is warranted. • Awareness: • Begins to move toward client, away from self.

  42. Overarching Structures—Level 2 • Self & Other Awareness • Less on self, more on client via empathy • Potential for over-identification

  43. Overarching Structures—Level 2 • Vacillation between autonomy & dependency.

  44. Overarching Structures—Level 2 • Dependency/autonomy struggle affects motivation. • Want independence but question self when in tough/new situations. • Evidence of struggle in supervision

  45. Level 2 Intervention Skills Competence • More comfort w/wide range of intervention skills, but… • Skills aren’t integrated w/theory.

  46. Level 2 Assessment Techniques • Improvement in diagnostic criteria & assessment instruments, but…

  47. Level 2 Interpersonal Assessment • Ability to be self-aware & monitor own cognitive/affective reactions is compromised due to over identification.

  48. Level 2 Client Conceptualization • Case conceptualization is more complex but subject to over identification with client.

  49. Level 2 Individual Differences • More willing to acknowledge influence of socio/cultural & environmental influences on behavior. • Vacillate between global one size fits all approaches and the idea that every client is unique.

  50. Level 2 Theoretical Orientation • Less rigidly aligned with one theory willing to explore other theories.