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THE OLD KINGDOM. Chapter 4.2. YouTube : The Old Kingdom. The Old Kingdom. Egypt was first made of two kingdoms Upper and Lower Upper-Southern Nile River Valley Lower-Northern Delta Menes was king of Upper Egypt

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youtube the old kingdom
YouTube: The Old Kingdom
the old kingdom1
The Old Kingdom
  • Egypt was first made of two kingdoms
    • Upper and Lower
    • Upper-Southern Nile River Valley
    • Lower-Northern Delta
  • Menes was king of Upper Egypt
    • He led his army from the Southern Valley into Lower Egypt
    • Conquered the Lower Kingdom and married a princess
the old kingdom2
The Old Kingdom
  • His marriage united the kingdoms
  • He wore two crowns, the Upper and Lower crowns
    • High White one from the south (Upper)
    • Low red one from the north (Lower)
  • Menes declared a new capital of Egypt in Memphis
    • Border city
old kingdom
Old Kingdom
  • 2600 BCE, the Old Kingdom arose (500 years)
    • Cities were centers of religion and government
    • City centers housed Kings, priests, government officials, and artisans
  • Many Egyptians did not live in the city, but large estates on the Nile banks.
    • Rich owners had gardens and pools
home of the rich
Home of the Rich
  • The homes had many paintings depicting daily life
  • Family, servants and artisans lived there
    • Artisan were hired to build boats, weave linen, and make tools/pottery
egyptian farmers
Egyptian Farmers
  • Most Egyptians did not live in the center of the city or on the banks of the Nile.
    • Most lived on the rich estates as farmers
  • Homes made of reed and mud, and later sun-baked brick.
  • Had one room, palm leave roof and built on high ground to avoid flood waters
  • Worked fields, built monuments, dug ditches, and repaired roads
the pharaoh
The Pharaoh
  • Pharaoh is a king
    • Meaning “great house”
  • Pharaoh was ruler, priest, and a god
  • Center of life and ruled on earth as god’s ruled in heaven
  • Owned all land, often gave as a gift to the rich
  • Maintained the land, kept up with it to make sure it could produce
the pharaoh1
The Pharaoh
  • Made sure canals were made and repaired
  • Developed granaries to house the grain so people would not starve if a bad harvest
  • Elected all officials
  • Taxed and issued building permits, trade went through Pharaoh first
  • Word of Pharaoh was law
the pharaoh2
The Pharaoh
  • People believed fate of Egypt depended on Pharaoh’s actions
  • Carried out rituals to ensure good harvest
  • Treated with respect, flutes were played when he appeared
  • Bowed and smelled the earth, or brought head to ground
youtube video the pyramids
YouTube Video: The Pyramids
the pyramids
The Pyramids
  • Pyramids were built out of respect for the Pharaoh’s.
  • Pyramids were great tombs built for Pharaoh’s as “Houses of Eternity”
  • Built in west to avoid flood waters
  • Built to protect Pharaoh and his belongings
  • EVERYTHING was placed in tomb
making the pyramids
Making the Pyramids
  • Farmers worked on them for the 3 summer months (flooded fields)
  • Used copper tools to cut granite and limestone blocks that were shipped down the Nile from the quarries
  • After unloaded workers brought them to building site and dragged the blocks up ramps to create the layers
youtube video making the pyramids
YouTube Video: Making the Pyramids
religious beliefs
Religious Beliefs
  • Believed in many god’s
  • River God Hapi and Sun God Re were most important
    • River brought water and fertile soil and sun grows crops
  • Osiris is god of harvest and eternal life
  • Egyptians used the technique of embalmment to preserve the bodies of the dead.
    • First only used with Pharaoh to preserve the body so the soul could live on and watch over Egypt
  • Body placed in wood box and covered with natron
    • Natron dried up water in body and shrunk it
  • Body was wrapped in linen
  • Poor people were buried in sand, while rich in tombs