chapter 4 2 waste minimisation n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 4.2 Waste minimisation PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 4.2 Waste minimisation

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

Chapter 4.2 Waste minimisation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 224 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 4.2 Waste minimisation. Why minimise waste?. waste. No waste minimisation. source. disposal. to treatment. With waste minimisation, recycling and treatment. source. waste. disposal. Off-site recycling. On-site recycling. Preferred hierarchy of waste management options.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 4.2 Waste minimisation' - elia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
why minimise waste
Why minimise waste?

waste

No waste minimisation

source

disposal

to treatment

With waste minimisation, recycling and treatment

source

waste

disposal

Off-site recycling

On-site recycling

TRP Chapter 4.2 2

preferred hierarchy of waste management options
Preferred hierarchy of waste management options

Source reduction

Waste diversion

On-site/off-site recycling

Treatment

Final disposal

TRP Chapter 4.2 3

source reduction opportunities
Source reduction opportunities

Source reduction

Product reformulation

Housekeeping improvement

Input material alteration

Technology alteration

TRP Chapter 4.2 4

successful example 3m
Successful example: 3M
  • reduced effluent discharges by 3.7 billion litres
  • · eliminated 10,000 tonnes of water pollutants
  • · eliminated 140,000 tonnes of sludge
  • · eliminated 90,000 tonnes of air pollutants

Savings = US$192million

TRP Chapter 4.2 5

factors influencing waste minimisation
Factors influencing waste minimisation
  • Government policy and regulations
  • Technological feasibility
  • Economic viability
  • Management commitment and support

TRP Chapter 4.2 6

waste minimisation incentives
Waste minimisation - incentives
  • Reduced costs:
    • raw materials, energy, water
    • storage and handling
    • waste disposal
    • health and safety
  • Regulatory compliance
  • Improved efficiency
  • Improved corporate image

TRP Chapter 4.2 7

waste minimisation barriers
Waste minimisation - barriers
  • Economic barriers
  • Technical barriers
  • Regulatory barriers

TRP Chapter 4.2 8

waste minimisation opportunities applicable to all operations 1
Waste minimisation opportunities applicable to all operations 1
  • Use higher purity materials
  • Use less toxic raw materials
  • Use non-corrosive materials
  • Convert from batch to continuous process
  • Improve equipment inspection & maintenance
  • Improve operator training
  • Improve supervision
  • Improve housekeeping

TRP Chapter 4.2 9

waste minimisation opportunities applicable to all operations 2
Waste minimisation opportunities applicable to all operations 2
  • Improve material tracking and inventory control:
    • avoid over-purchasing
    • inspect deliveries before acceptance
    • make frequent inventory checks
    • label all containers accurately
    • ensure materials with limited shelf-life are used by expiry date
    • where possible, install computer-assisted inventory control

TRP Chapter 4.2 10

demonstration projects
Demonstration projects
  • Alternative approaches:
    • participants from different industry sectors eg companies on an industrial estate, members of Green Business Club
    • participants within a single industry sector eg via a trade association
  • Common themes:
    • specialist consultant to manage programme
    • facilitated discussion and dissemination
    • shared experiences
    • encouraging replication

TRP Chapter 4.2 11

case studies
Case studies

Delivering textile dyeing wastewater, Thailand

Source: Ministry of Industry, Thailand

TRP Chapter 4.2 12

implementing a company waste minimisation programme
Implementing a company waste minimisation programme
  • A systematic and ongoing effort to reduce waste generation
  • Must be tailored to specific company needs and practices
  • 3 main phases:
    • planning and organisation
    • conducting a waste audit
    • implementing, monitoring and reviewing

TRP Chapter 4.2 13

phase 1 planning and organisation
Phase 1: Planning and organisation
  • Obtain management commitment
  • Establish programme task force
  • Set goals and priorities
  • Establish an audit team

TRP Chapter 4.2 14

phase 2 waste audit
Phase 2: Waste audit
  • 6 main steps:
    • identify plant operations
    • define process inputs
    • define process outputs
    • assess material balance
    • identify opportunities
    • conduct feasibility study

TRP Chapter 4.2 15

step 1 identify plant operations
Step 1: Identify plant operations
  • Inspect the site
  • Identify different processes undertaken on site
  • List processes and obtain as much information as possible on them

TRP Chapter 4.2 16

step 2 define process inputs
Step 2: Define process inputs
  • Account for all the material flows into each individual process
    • materials
    • energy
    • water
  • Make sure all inputs are accounted for in detail eg kg of raw materials, kilowatts of electricity, litres of water
  • Make sure figures are on same basis
  • eg annual, monthly, weekly inputs

TRP Chapter 4.2 17

step 3 define process outputs
Step 3: Define process outputs
  • Identify and quantify all process outputs
    • primary products
    • co-products
    • waste for re-use or recycling
    • waste for disposal

TRP Chapter 4.2 18

step 4 assess material balance
Step 4: Assess material balance

To ensure that all resources are accounted for, conduct a materials balance assessment

Total material out

Total material in

=

+

Product

TRP Chapter 4.2 19

typical components of a material balance
Typical components of a material balance

Inputs

Outputs

Gaseous emissions

Product

By-product

Wastewater

Wastes for storage or off-site disposal

Raw material 1

Raw material 2

Raw material 3

Water/air

Production process or unit operation

TRP Chapter 4.2 20

step 5 identify opportunities for waste minimisation
Step 5: Identify opportunities for waste minimisation

Using data acquired during the waste audit, make preliminary evaluation of the potential for waste minimisation

Prioritise options for implementation

TRP Chapter 4.2 21

step 6 conduct feasibility study
Step 6: Conduct feasibility study
  • Conduct feasibility analysis of selected options
    • Technical considerations:
      • Availability of technology
      • Facility constraints including compatibility with existing operation
      • Product requirements
      • Operator safety and training
      • Potential for health and environmental impacts
    • Economic considerations:
      • Capital and operating costs
      • Pay-back period

TRP Chapter 4.2 22

phase 3 implementing monitoring and reviewing
Phase 3: Implementing, monitoring and reviewing
  • Prepare Action Plan
  • Identify resources
  • Implement the measures
  • Evaluate performance

TRP Chapter 4.2 23

chapter 4 2 summary
Chapter 4.2 Summary
  • There are a number of good reasons for minimising waste - source reduction comes at the top of the waste hierarchy
  • Factors which influence waste minimisation include regulations, technological feasibility, economic viability and management support
  • There are both incentives and barriers; some opportunities widely applicable - and valuable experience from demonstration projects
  • Guide to implementing a company waste minimisation programme and conducting an audit

TRP Chapter 4.2 24