Feedback - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Feedback

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  1. Feedback

  2. FEEDBACK intrinsic extrinsic Augmented Feedback Sensory Feedback visual KR KP auditory cutaneous proprioception

  3. Augmented Feedback • Info provided learner from external source to supplement movement-produced feedback • Knowledge of Results (KR) • Knowledge of Performance (KP) • Purposes of augmented feedback? • Guide • Motivate • Reinforce

  4. What do you think - KR or KP? • Your foot placement on the beam should be more angled • Keep your head down more & eyes on the ball • Your fast pitch came in at 92 mph • You need to let the weight down more slowly • You are shooting high and to the right

  5. Feedback Considerations • Is it necessary? • What form or type of feedback should be given? • When should it be given? • How often should it be given?

  6. Is feedback necessary? • Essential? • Not needed ? • Enhances learning ? • Hinders ?

  7. Is it necessary? • Essential when task-intrinsic feedback not available • Not needed when task-intrinsic feedback sufficient or provided through observation • Enhances learning when fine discrimination between movements needed or multi-limb coordination involved • Hinders if become over-dependent

  8. What form should it take? • Prioritize knowledge of performance feedback • Provide both error-based and correct performance info - when? • “sandwich” approach • Use descriptive and/or prescriptive - when best? • Associates between errors and corrections

  9. What do you think - Descriptive or Prescriptive? • Your plant foot is landing too far in front of you • When you release the ball, continue to flex your wrist so your fingers are pointing down • The ball is behind your head when you contact it • Your knee is not reaching full extension • Shift your weight forward before stepping

  10. How precise should it be? • Let’s see! • Less precise for novice vs. intermediate performers • More general info more effective in early stages of learning • As precision increases so too should time to process it

  11. How Frequent Should Feedback Be? • “the more the better”??? Not! • Increased frequency better for performance while reduced frequency better for retention • Various schedules to reduce frequency

  12. Fading Frequency Schedule • Higher frequency KR provided early in acquisition & reduced in later stages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

  13. Bandwidth Schedule • Feedback only provided if errors exceed certain range • Feedback systematically reduced according to level of proficiency • Learner interprets absence of KR as satisfactory performance

  14. Summary Schedule • Withholding feedback for given number of trials • Feedback then given for each trial previously performed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 10,11,12 1,2,3 4,5,6 7,8,9

  15. Summary Schedule • Optimal length of interval influenced by task complexity and skill level of learner

  16. Average Schedule • Withholding feedback for given number of trials • Feedback then given as average of performance errors that occurred for trials previously performed 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 ave ave ave ave

  17. Learner-Regulated Schedule • Learner controls when & how much feedback given • Reduces & individualizes feedback frequency • Actively engages learner in learning process

  18. Basis for Reduced Schedules • Guidance Hypothesis • High frequencies lead to overdependence on external feedback • Low frequencies foster problem-solving & less likely to overload learner

  19. Basis for Reduced Schedules • Consistency Hypothesis • High frequencies cause learner to continually adjust performance • Constant short-term corrections prevent development of stable plan of action

  20. When should feedback be given? • Very short KR delay intervals provide insufficient time for processing movement-related feedback nor allow for error detection/correction activities • Longer delay intervals & error estimation leads to better retention and performance when no feedback available • Develop self-evaluation skills • “Why do you think the ball went to the left?” • “Do you think your arm came straight down or across your body?”