Learning Style • Stewart and Felicetti (1992): those "educational conditions under which a student is most likely to learn." • a student’s consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in the context of learning • how learners prefer to learn
Traditional Schooling • Use of linguistic and logical thinking methods only • Rely on classroom and book-based teaching, repetition, pressured exams for reinforcement/review Vs. Use of Learning Styles • Recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques • Use techniques suited to the learner to improve speed and quality of learning
Kolb’s Learning Styles • Kolb (1984) theorized that people develop preferences for different learning styles. According to Kolb, the learning cycle involves four processes that must be present for learning to occur: • Activist - Active Experimentation (simulations, case study, homework). What's new? I'm game for anything. • Reflector - Reflective Observation (logs, journals, brainstorming). I'd like time to think about this. • Theorist - Abstract Conceptualization (lecture, papers, analogies). How does this relate to that? • Pragmatist - Concrete Experience (laboratories, field work, observations). How can I apply this in practice?
Kolb’s Learning Styles These learning styles are the combination of two lines of axis (continuums) each formed between what Kolb calls 'dialectically related modes' of 'grasping experience' (doing or watching), and 'transforming experience‘ (feeling or thinking): • Feeling - Concrete Experience (CE) • Watching - Reflective Observation (RO) • Thinking - Abstract Conceptualisation (AC) • Doing - Active Experimentation (AE)
Multiple Intelligences • Intelligence can come in many forms. • Learning styles are the way people put the intelligence to work. • Knowing which intelligence you possess enables you to select learning styles that work for you.
Multiple Intelligences • Visual (spatial) – use of pictures,images and spatial understanding • Aural (auditory-musical) – prefer using sound and music • Verbal (linguistic) – prefer using words,both in speech and writing • Physical (kinesthetic) – prefer using body, hands and sense of touch • Logical (mathematical) – prefer using logic, reasoning and systems • Social (interpersonal) – prefer learning in groups • Solitary (intrapersonal) – prefer to work alone and use self-study
VAK Learning Styles VISUAL Learning through seeing AUDITORY Learning through hearing KINESTHETIC/TACTILE Learning through moving, doing, and touching
VAK Learning Styles VISUAL LEARNERS • Think in pictures and learn best from visual displays (diagrams, illustrated textbooks, videos, charts) • Prefer to take detailed notes to absorb information • Need to see teacher’s body language and facial expression to fully understand content of lesson
VAK Learning Styles • AUDITORY LEARNERS • Learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, and listening to what others have to say • Interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances • Benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder
VAK Learning Styles • KINESTHETIC/TACTILE LEARNERS • Do best while touching and moving • Learn best through a hands-on approach • Need for activity and exploration
Integrating the Styles into the Learning Environment • VISUAL LEARNERS • Use graphs, charts, illustrations, or other visual aids. • Include outlines, concept maps, agendas, handouts, etc. for reading and taking notes. • Invite questions to help them stay alert in auditory environments. • Post flip charts to show what will come and what has been presented. • Supplement textual information with illustrations whenever possible. • Have them draw pictures in the margins. • Have the learners envision the topic or have them act out the subject matter.
Integrating the Styles into the Learning Environment • AUDITORY LEARNERS • Begin new material with a brief explanation of what is coming. Conclude with a summary of what has been covered. • Use the method of questioning learners to draw as much information from them as possible. • Include auditory activities, such as brainstorming, buzz groups, or Jeopardy. Leave plenty of time to debrief activities. • Have the learners verbalize the questions. • Develop an internal dialogue between yourself and the learners.
Integrating the Styles into the Learning Environment • KINESTHETIC/TACTILE LEARNERS • Use activities that get the learners up and moving • Play music, when appropriate, during activities • Use colored markers to emphasize key points on flipcharts or white boards • Give frequent stretch breaks (brain breaks). • Guide learners through a visualization of complex tasks • Have them transfer information from the text to another medium such as a keyboard or a tablet
Education and Gaming The nature of learning supported by use of games in education can be broadly divided into three types: • learning as a result of tasks stimulated by the content of the games • knowledge developed through the content of the game • skills arising as a result of playing the game
Education and Gaming Categories of Games • adventure games – where the player moves through a virtual world • puzzle games - such as Tetris • role-playing games – where the player assumes the role of a person or creatures, such as Dungeons and Dragons • strategy games – such as Sims, where the player’s strategy drives the game • sports games
Education and Gaming Use of games in education can support valuable skill development, such as: • • strategic thinking • • planning • • communication • • application of numbers • • negotiating skills • • group decision-making • • data-handling
Education and Gaming Skills Developed Using Games Mathematical Development • Use everyday words to describe position Creative Development • Recognise and explore how sounds can be changed, sing simple songs from memory, recognise repeated sounds and sound patterns and match movements to music. • Respond in a variety of ways to what they see, hear, smell, touch and feel. • Use their imagination in art and design, music, dance, imaginative and role play and stories.
Education and Gaming Skills Developed Using Games Knowledge and Understanding of the World • Use early control software to investigate direction and control Physical Development • Fine motor control can be developed with the increased refinement in using a mouse for navigation and selecting objects.