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Class 9a: Political Geography II. Reapportionment and redistricting Gerrymandering Local politics. Proportional representation. VA Plan vs. NJ Plan  Great Compromise Large states wanted proportional repr. Small states wanted equal repr. 3/5 Compromise on slaves.

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class 9a political geography ii
Class 9a: Political Geography II
  • Reapportionment and redistricting
  • Gerrymandering
  • Local politics
proportional representation
Proportional representation
  • VA Plan vs. NJ Plan  Great Compromise
  • Large states wanted proportional repr.
  • Small states wanted equal repr.
  • 3/5 Compromise on slaves
proportional representation1
Proportional representation
  • 100 Senators, 435 Representatives
  • Basis for Electoral College
  • All votes are not equal
    • Minimum representation
    • Winner-take-all
reapportionment
Reapportionment
  • Population changes with migration
  • Need to reapportion seats
  • Based on Census
  • Every state keeps at least one Representative
  • Method of equal proportions
redistricting
Redistricting
  • Redrawing district boundaries based on reapportionment
  • In most states, done by legislature
  • Meant to maintain equality of votes
  • Can be manipulated
gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
  • Discriminatory redistricting
  • Consolidating power
  • Diluting opponents’ power
gerrymandering1
Gerrymandering
  • Racist gerrymandering after Civil War
    • Put all minorities in one district
    • Dilute them among all districts
  • 1982 Voting Rights Act
    • Majority-minority districts
    • Constitutional issues
slide11
IL: 4th District

TX: 12th District

FL: 22nd and 23rd Districts

GA: 13th District

NY: 18th District

gerrymandering and democracy
Gerrymandering and democracy
  • Preserves incumbents
    • In 1992, 61% of races won by >20%
    • In 2002, 80% of races won by > 20%; average margin of victory 39%
    • 1 of 53 seats in CA competitive
gerrymandering and democracy1
Gerrymandering and democracy
  • Removes decision-making from voters
  • “Candidates choose the voters”
  • More polarized Congress
local politics
Local politics
  • Hierarchy of jurisdictions
  • Special-purpose districts
  • Local governments and urban sprawl
hierarchy of jurisdictions
Hierarchy of jurisdictions
  • First order divisions
    • Largest units within a state
    • Provinces, states, oblasts, prefectures
    • Unitary vs. federal
hierarchy of jurisdictions1
Hierarchy of jurisdictions
  • Second order divisions
    • Counties, townships, parishes, boroughs
    • 3000 in US; from 24 to 20,000 miles2 and from 100 to 8 million residents
  • Functions depend on the state
    • Law enforcement, highways, taxes, statistics, welfare, elections
hierarchy of jurisdictions2
Hierarchy of jurisdictions
  • Minor civil divisions
    • Townships, cities, villages
  • Land use and zoning
  • Growth by annexation
special purpose districts
Special purpose districts
  • Consequence of federal system
  • Territory and organization for one purpose
  • Fire, water, flood control, mosquito control, irrigation, etc.
  • Over 35,000 in 2002
school districts
School districts
  • Land granted to new territories (1 section per township)
  • Land grant colleges
  • Historically, little federal input
  • Over 15,000 in 2002
  • Funding depends on local tax income
urban sprawl
Urban sprawl
  • Too much local decision-making
  • Each MCD acts in its own interests
    • Maximize tax revenue
    • Minimize need for services
  • Reluctance for regional government
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