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  1. Questions we’ll ask… • Do we need to specifically think about boys in our design of and implementation of behavioral support? (i.e., Are boys in trouble?) • If so, what is it about boys? • Then, what is a helpful response from schools?

  2. As a Researcher: • Student researcher in Educational Psychology • Published chapters in books on PBIS and anxiety in schools • Trainer of PBIS with NCDPI for many years • The questions I will ask emerge from research and data trends

  3. As an Educator: • Worked in regular education and special education • Worked with student behaviors from preschool to high school • The ideas I will share will be PRACTICAL, EASY TO IMPLEMENT, and CHEAP (homemade)

  4. Questions we’ll ask… • Do we need to specifically think about boys in our design of and implementation of behavioral support? (i.e., Are boys in trouble?) • If so, what is it about boys? • Then, what is a helpful response from schools?

  5. Source: Jeffrey Schwartz & David Rock, 2006

  6. Source: Jeffrey Schwartz & David Rock, 2006

  7. Source: Jeffrey Schwartz & David Rock, 2006

  8. Do we need to specifically consider boys in our design of and implementation of behavioral support? (i.e., Are boys in trouble?)

  9. The Tensions We Face • Discussing boys without shortchanging girls • Considering masculinity without endorsing the “gender straightjacket” • Including gender without diminishing the significance of race and economic disparities

  10. Are boys in trouble? NC GRADUATION RATES (4-year cohort) Source: http://accrpt.ncpublicschools.org/docs/

  11. Are boys in trouble? Students Reporting Discipline Problems as Reason for Dropping Out Source: Stearns, E. and Glennie, E. J. , 2003-08-16 "When and Why Dropouts Leave School: Lessons from North Carolina" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p107973_index.html

  12. Are boys in trouble? Rates of Office Discipline Referrals Source: Vincent, Cartledge, May, & Tobin, 2009

  13. Are boys in trouble? Rates of Short-term Suspensions Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/research/discipline/reports/consolidated/2009-10/consolidated-report.pdf

  14. Are boys in trouble? Rates of Short-term Suspensions Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/research/discipline/reports/consolidated/2009-10/consolidated-report.pdf

  15. Are boys in trouble? Rates of Short-term Suspensions Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/research/discipline/reports/consolidated/2009-10/consolidated-report.pdf

  16. Are boys in trouble? Rates of Long-term Suspensions Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/research/discipline/reports/consolidated/2009-10/consolidated-report.pdf

  17. Are boys in trouble? NC Disabilities by Gender (%) Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/ec/data/childcount/reports/april1/2010/disability-gender.pdf

  18. Are boys in trouble? NC Disabilities by Gender (%) Source: http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/ec/data/childcount/reports/april1/2010/disability-gender.pdf

  19. Then, what is it about boys?

  20. The “Boy Code”

  21. The Big Myth “Boys will be boys” • Deterministic (usually biologically) • Used as a paralyzing explanation • Not neutral: • Masculine threat • Apathy • Aggression

  22. The “Boy Code” The Four Injunctions: • Sturdy oak • Give ‘em hell • Big wheel • No sissy stuff

  23. The Sturdy Oak Characteristics: • Stability and independence • Never show weakness Problem: Affects motivation and engagement (real and perceived)

  24. Give ‘Em Hell Characteristics: • Daring and bravado • Attraction to violence Problem: Encourages boys to be careless—about themselves and others (especially other boys)

  25. Big Wheel Characteristics: • Pursuit of status and power • Self-worth tied up entirely in dominant achievement Problem: Success understood primarily in terms of win-lose situations

  26. No Sissy Stuff Characteristics: • Avoidance of all things feminine • Injunction includes feelings, empathy, and dependence Problem: Aversion to femininity includes peers, teachers, activities, and content

  27. The Gendered Curriculum: The People Percentage of Female Teachers Source: Dee, 2006http://educationnext.org/files/ednext20064_68.pdf

  28. A Key Message of the “Boy Code” BOYS ARE SHAME- PHOBIC.

  29. What is the educational response?

  30. The Keys to Creating a Safe Environment for Learning R – Relate, relate, relate. I – Insist that each boy controls his destiny. S – Serve as a model for risk-taking K – Keep the momentum toward progress

  31. R – Relate, relate, relate! Relationships between students and peers Relationships between students and teachers Relationships between students and content

  32. Humans express belonging to a space by personalizing it (Armstrong, 1999) Use routines and, perhaps more importantly, rituals that define your community (Scully & Howell, 2009) Create a team-orientation that makes success a collaborative endeavor R – Relate, relate, relate!Building Belonging

  33. Humans (including boys) have no choice but to follow the hierarchy of needs Cultivating a nurturing relationship with our boys is a primary responsibility, not a secondary one Learning takes place in the context of relationships, not classrooms, textbooks, or activities R – Relate, relate, relate!Being a Team-Centered Classroom

  34. R – Relate, relate, relate!Congruent Communication Make your communication fit with respect to boys’: • Developmental needs • Cultural needs • Emotional/ • psychological state • Interests/affinities

  35. R – Relate, relate, relate!Congruent Communication Techniques: • Student conferences • Walk-and-talk • Dialogue journals • "Perhaps more than any other form of communication, writing holds us responsible for our words and ultimately makes us more thoughtful human beings.” -- Ernest Boyer

  36. “A smile is the shortest distance between two people.” --Victor Borge R – Relate, relate, relate!Using humor

  37. According to research, humor helps with… Attention and motivation (Bandes, 1988; Bryant et al., 1979; Wandersee, 1982) Comprehension, particularly with boys (Gorham & Christophel, 1990) Student recall (Hill, 1988) Reducing the negative effect of testing situations (McMorris et al. 1985) R – Relate, relate, relate!Using humor

  38. Caveats… Sarcasm Targeted Race, sex, or other off-color topics Ideas… Icebreakers/Warm-ups Mnemonic devices Use funny content (books, etc.) Jokes as reinforcers Test items In-the-moment tension reduction/redirection R – Relate, relate, relate!Using humor

  39. I – Insist that the boy controls his own destiny Providing choice • Authentic choices • Schedule • Tasks • Topic • Mode • Type of Participation • Artful choices (intentional communication)

  40. I – Insist that the boy controls his own destiny • Connect to and celebrate intrinsic motivation

  41. I – Insist that the boy controls his own destiny • Connect to and celebrate intrinsic motivation • Assess what already motivates your students about school • Invite external enthusiasm into the classroom • Support boys’ activity outside of school

  42. I – Insist that the boy controls his own destiny Become predictably exciting • Allow routines and procedures to… • Structure student participation • Support student choices • Provide cues that make the classroom “navigable”

  43. S - Serve as a Model Risk-Taker

  44. S - Serve as a Model Risk-Taker • Learn from your students • Have students teach you extra-curricular skills • Be open to student thinking during class discussions • Ask students to defend “wrong” answers

  45. S - Serve as a Model Risk-Taker • Allow students the opportunity to provide real, influential feedback • Suggestion boxes • Post-lesson reflections/evaluations

  46. K – Keep the momentum in the direction of progress • Manage the potential pain of failure • Group responses • Wait Time • “Lifelines” • Cooperative work • Mastery-based assessment

  47. K – Keep the momentum in the direction of progress • Provide relevant, meaningful feedback • Individual reinforcement systems • Classroom reinforcement systems • Racetrack • Bingo

  48. K – Keep the momentum in the direction of progress Recognize the process • Set realistic, motivating goals • Accepting shaping