Agenda • Warm Up • Unit 4-2 Standards and Vocabulary • 17.3 RSG: Luther Leads the Reformation (textbook pages 488 – 494) • Protestant Reformation Notes
Please add these pages to your Table of Contents 53 4-2 Reformation Standards • 17.3 RSG 55 The Reformation
Warm Up (Jeopardy) • The answer is: • The Printing Press • What is the question?
Quick Review 1. The first use of moveable type was in Greece Germany Italy China
Quick Review • The printing press was invented by Jan van Eyck Johann Gutenberg Peter Bruegel the Elder Hans Holbein the Younger
Quick Review • What was an important effect of the invention of the printing press? Gutenberg used his wealth from the invention to support artists it led to the development of public sporting events it led to a renewed study of Latin and Greek it increased literacy and the use of the vernacular
Quick Review • What was the first full-sized book Gutenberg printed? Utopia Romeo and Juliet The Bible The Prince
1. indulgence a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin. (p. 489)
2. reformation a 16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the pope’s authority. (p. 489)
3. Lutheran a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther. (p. 490)
4. Protestant a member of a Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation. (p. 490)
8. Catholic Reformation a 16thcentury movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation. (p. 498)
9. Jesuits members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola. (p. 499)
10. Council of Trent a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul III to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers. (p. 499)
11. Treaty of Tordesillas a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
13. conquistador the Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century. (p. 554)
14. Columbian Exchange the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas. (p. 571)
15. triangular trade the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas. (p. 568)
1. During the Middle Ages, what criticisms did the Church face? • Church leaders were too interested in worldly pursuits (such as gaining wealth and political power).
Social Causes Values of humanism and secularism led people to question the Church The printing press helped to spread ideas critical of the Church
Political Causes • Powerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe • Many leaders viewed the Pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authorityPowerful monarchs challenged the Church as the supreme power in Europe • Many leaders viewed the Pope as a foreign ruler and challenged his authority
Economic Causes • European princes and kings were jealous of the Church’s wealth • Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the Church
Religious Causes • Some Church leaders had become worldly and corrupt • Many people found Church practices (such as the sale of indulgences) unacceptable
3. What did Martin Luther’s parents want him to be? What did he end up doing instead? • Martin Luther’s parents wanted him to be a lawyer. Instead he became a monk and a teacher of scripture at the University of Wittenberg in the German state of Saxony.
4. What was Luther’s goal? • He wanted to be a good Christian, not lead a religious revolution.
5. Who did Luther take a public stance against and why? • Johann Tetzel, a friar, was selling indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral.
6. What is an indulgence? • An indulgence was a pardon that released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins. Tetzel gave people the impression that by buying indulgences, they could buy their way into heaven.
7. What were the 95 Theses? Why did Luther post them? • The 95 Theses were formal statements attacking the “pardon merchants.” Luther invited other scholars to debate him.
8. How did the printing press effect the situation in Wittenberg? • Someone copied Luther’s words and took them to a printer. Luther soon became known all over Germany.
9. What was the Reformation and what did it lead to? • The Reformation was a movement for religious reform. It led to the founding of Christian churches that did not accept the pope’s authority.
10. Summarize the Response to Luther. 1520 – The Pope excommunicated Luther 1521 – Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, calls Luther to stand trial. Luther is told to recant. He refuses. - HRE Charles V issues Edict of Worms making Luther an outlaw - Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony shelters Luther - Luther translates the Bible into German 1522 – Luther and his followers become a separate religious group called Lutherans. 1524 – Peasants influenced by talk of religious freedom, revolt and seek to end serfdom - Luther wrote a pamphlet against the peasant revolt. - Peasants felt betrayed and rejected Luther’s leadership.
1529 – German princes who remained loyal to the Pope agreed to join forces against Luther’s ideas - Princes who supported Luther signed a protest against the agreement and become known as Protestants 1547 - Charles V defeated the Protestant princes but couldn’t force them back into the Catholic Church 1555 – Peace of Augsburg ended the fighting between Protestant and Catholic princes. - Each ruler would determine the religion of his state.
11. Why did Henry VIII of England break with the Pope and the Catholic Church? • Henry only had one child, a daughter named Mary, with his wife Catherine. He needed a son to ensure that a civil war would not break out upon his death and remove the Tudors from power. (No woman had ever successfully claimed the English throne.)
12. What did the Act of Supremacy do? • It required the people of England to take an oath recognizing the Henry’s divorce from Catherine and accepting Henry, not the Pope, as the official head of England’s Church.
Standard: SSWH9 The student will analyze change and continuity in the Renaissance and Reformation. EQ: What were the causes of the Reformation?
I. The Protestant Reformation A. The group of Popes known as the Renaissance Popes failed to meet the Church’s spiritual needs (Julius II) B. Corruption in the Church was a major factor that encouraged reform
II. Causes of the Reformation • Emphasis on the secular and the individual challenged Church authority • Rulers began to challenge Church authority • Merchants resented paying church taxes to Rome
III. Johann Tetzel • Sold indulgences (pardons) to raise money for work on St. Peter’s Basilica • remembered for selling indulgences using the catchy line, "As soon a coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs." • created a chart that listed a price for each type of sin and claiming that the indulgences he sold could save a soul
IV. Martin Luther • “Father” of the reformation • Stated humans are not saved through good works, rather through faith • Stated the chief guide to religious truth was the Bible • Created 95 theses outlining the abuses of the church and posted them on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. • Luther’s actions began the Reformation.
V. Reformation in Switzerland • Ulrich Zwingli was a priest in Zurich who began a religious movement which included the elimination of relics, images, and decorations in churches. • In 1531, led an army against the Catholic church.