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Electrostatics. Concept Summary Adapted from: Batesville High School Physics. Electrostatics. Electrostatics is the study of electric charge at rest . (Or more or less at rest, as opposed to current electricity.). Electrical Charges.

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concept summary adapted from batesville high school physics

Electrostatics

Concept Summary

Adapted from:

Batesville High School Physics

electrostatics
Electrostatics
  • Electrostatics is the study of electric charge at rest.
    • (Or more or less at rest, as opposed to current electricity.)
electrical charges
Electrical Charges
  • Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter.
    • Two types of electric charges
      • Positive charge - every proton has a single positive charge.
      • Negative charge - every electron has a single negative charge.
electrical forces
Electrical Forces
  • Like charges repel.
  • Opposite charges attract.
elementary charges
Elementary Charges
  • Protons carry the smallest positive charge.
  • The smallest negative charge is the charge on the electron.
  • The charges carried by the proton and electron are equal in size.
  • The mass of the proton is about 2000 times the mass of the electron.
units of charge
Units of Charge
  • The SI unit of charge is the coulomb.
  • The elementary charge of a proton or an electron is 1.60 x 10−19 C.
  • The proton is positively charged, while the electron is negatively charged.
electrical charge
Electrical Charge
  • An object with an excess of electrons is negatively charged.
  • An object with too few electrons (too many protons) is positively charged.
  • An object with the same number of electrons and protons is neutral.
stroking
Stroking

If something gets a positive electric charge, then it follows that something else:

a) becomes equally positively charged.

b) becomes equally negatively charged.

c) becomes negatively charges, but not necessarily equally negatively charged.

d) becomes magnetized.

stroking1
Stroking

If something gets a positive electric charge, then it follows that something else:

a) becomes equally positively charged.

b) becomes equally negatively charged.

c) becomes negatively charges, but not necessarily equally negatively charged.

d) becomes magnetized.

stroking2
Stroking

If something gets a positive electric charge, then it follows that something else:

a) becomes equally positively charged.

b) becomes equally negatively charged.

c) becomes negatively charges, but not necessarily equally negatively charged.

d) becomes magnetized.

charge is conserved
Charge is Conserved
  • Electric charge is conserved -
    • Electric charge moves from one place to another - no case of the net creation or destruction of electric charge has ever been observed.
      • In solids, only electrons can move.
      • In liquids, gasses, and plasmas, both positive and negative ions are free to move.
conductors insulators
Conductors & Insulators
  • Materials in which charges are free to move about are called conductors.
  • Materials in which charges are not free to move about are called insulators.
creating an electric charge
“Creating” an Electric Charge
  • When you “create” an electric charge (by rubbing your feet on a carpet) you are actually separating existing charges – not creating charges.
  • One object ends up with an excess of electrons (− charge), and the other a deficit of electrons (+ charge).
charging by friction
Charging by Friction
  • If one neutral material has more affinity for electrons than another (neutral) material, it will attract electrons from the other.
  • One material becomes negatively charged, the other positively charged.
charging by contact
Charging by Contact
  • If a charged object is brought in contact with a neutral object, charges will be repelled from (or attracted to) the charged object.
  • The neutral object will gain a charge of the same sign as the charged object.
grounding
Grounding
  • Providing a path from a charged object to the Earth is called grounding it.
  • Charges will be attracted from (or repelled to) the Earth by the charged object.
  • Since the Earth is so large, both the charged object and the Earth are neutralized.
charging by induction
Charging by Induction
  • Bring a charged object near (but not touching) a neutral object.
  • Ground the neutral object.
  • Remove the ground.
  • Remove the charged object
  • The neutral object now has a charge opposite to the charged object.
under the influence
Under the Influence

Two uncharged metal balls, X and Y, stand on glass rods. A third ball, Z, carrying a positive charge, is brought near the first two. A conducting wire is then run between X and Y. The wire is then removed, and ball Z is finally removed. When this is all done it is found that:

a) balls X and Y are still uncharged

b) balls X and Y are both charged positively

c) balls X and Y are both charged negatively

d) ball X is + and ball Y is −

e) ball X is − and ball Y is +

under the influence1
Under the Influence

Two uncharged metal balls, X and Y, stand on glass rods. A third ball, Z, carrying a positive charge, is brought near the first two. A conducting wire is then run between X and Y. The wire is then removed, and ball Z is finally removed. When this is all done it is found that:

a) balls X and Y are still uncharged

b) balls X and Y are both charged positively

c) balls X and Y are both charged negatively

d) ball X is + and ball Y is −

e) ball X is − and ball Y is +

under the influence2
Under the Influence

Two uncharged metal balls, X and Y, stand on glass rods. A third ball, Z, carrying a positive charge, is brought near the first two. A conducting wire is then run between X and Y. The wire is then removed, and ball Z is finally removed. When this is all done it is found that:

a) balls X and Y are still uncharged

b) balls X and Y are both charged positively

c) balls X and Y are both charged negatively

d) ball X is + and ball Y is −

e) ball X is − and ball Y is +

electroscopes
Electroscopes

Metal plate

Insulator

Metal shaft

Glass window

Metal plate

Insulated container

Metal leaf

polarization
Polarization
  • Bringing a charged object near (but not touching) a neutral object polarizes (temporarily separates) the charge of the neutral object.
    • Like charges in the neutral object are repelled by the charged object.
    • Unlike charges in the neutral object are attracted by the neutral object.
  • The neutral object returns to normal when the charged object is removed.
electric dipoles
Electric Dipoles
  • An object that is electrically neutral overall, but permanently polarized, is called an electric dipole.
    • Example: H20 molecule
electrical forces1
Electrical Forces
  • The electrical force between 2 charges depends on:
    • The size of each charge
      • More charge means more force.
    • The distance between the charges
      • More distance means less force.
electrical forces2
Electrical Forces
  • The electrical force between 2 charges is:
    • Directly proportional to each charge.
    • Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.