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AP European History Review 2 nd Semester. Industrial Revolution To European Union. The Industrial Revolution. Origins Agricultural revolution New methods of farming increased food production, led to population growth & surplus of labor Capital for investment (banking and credit system)

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ap european history review 2 nd semester

AP European History Review 2nd Semester

Industrial Revolution


European Union

the industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution
  • Origins
    • Agricultural revolution
      • New methods of farming increased food production, led to population growth & surplus of labor
    • Capital for investment (banking and credit system)
    • Mineral resources
      • Supply of coal & iron ore needed to run machines
      • Private and public investment built up infrastructure
        • Roads, bridges, canals, railroads etc.
    • Markets
      • colonial empire - market for manufactured goods
technological changes
Technological Changes
  • Cotton Industry
    • Water frame – use of hydro power
    • Crompton’s mule
      • Combined aspects of the water frame & the Spinning Jenny to increase yarn production
      • Water powered machines made rivers key locations for production
  • The Steam engine
    • James Watt (1736-1819)
      • Developed the steam engine powered by coal which increased productivity
      • Steam engines did not need to be located by rivers - development of factories
      • Coal production quadrupled from 1815 to 1850 to keep up with demand
A Revolution in Transportation: Railroad
      • Richard Trevithick’s locomotive
        • 1st Steam powered
      • George Stephenson’s Rocket
        • 1st public railway line (32 miles long) went 16MPH
  • The Industrial Factory
    • Workers were wage earners instead of entrepreneurs
    • Workers were forced to work regular hours in shifts
      • Major change from agrarian work
      • Disciplined with fines, dismissal or beatings
the pace of industrialization on the continent
The Pace of Industrialization on the Continent
  • Obstacles to Rapid Industrialization
    • Lack of a transportation system
      • Didn’t have good roads or river transit
    • Upheavals of war
      • French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
      • Weakened political and social stability
      • Loss of manpower
the social impact of the industrial revolution
The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
  • Population Growth
    • Decline of the death rate (famine, epidemics, war) & increase in food supply
      • Agricultural revolution all but ended famine
    • By 1850, European population was over 265 million
  • The Great Hunger (Exception to increase in food supply)
    • Irish population growth
      • Grew from 4 to 8 million between 1781 & 1845
    • Reliance on the potato
    • Potato crop fails, 1845-1851
    • Over 1 million died of starvation and disease
    • Over 2 million emigrated to U.S.
    • Ireland became the only European nation with a declining population in the 19th century
The Growth of Cities
    • Rapid, unplanned, growth
    • Move from rural to urban – left the countryside looking for work in cities
      • Direct result of industrialization
Urban Living Conditions in the Early Industrial Revolution
    • Cities and suburbs
      • Sprang up fast with little planning – quickly overcrowded
    • Unsanitary conditions
      • Waste flowed through the gutters
    • Crowding
      • Rise in prostitution, crime, & sexual immorality
    • Adulteration of food
      • Chemicals were added to food and drinks were watered down
  • Urban Reformers
    • Edwin Chadwick
    • Advocated a system of modern sanitary reform
      • Resulted in first Public Health Act
      • Use of drainage (sewers) and piped water
efforts at change
Efforts at Change
  • Efforts at Change: The Workers
    • Luddites
      • skilled craftspeople who attacked the machines they believed threatened their livelihoods (British)
    • The People’s Charter (Chartists) British Workers movement
      • Demanded universal male suffrage, payment for members of Parliament, elimination of property requirements for members of Parliament & annual sessions of Parliament
      • Attempted to institute change by peaceful, constitutional means
      • Provided working-class with sense of consciousness
romanticism the conservative order 1815 1830
RomanticismThe Conservative Order (1815 – 1830)
  • The Peace Settlement
    • Quadruple Alliance: Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia
      • Defeated Napoleon
      • Congress of Vienna (1814 – 1815)
        • Created policies to maintain European balance of power
      • Lead by Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austrian foreign minister)
        • Believed European monarchs shared common interest of stability
      • The principal of legitimacy
        • Considered it necessary to restore legitimate monarchs to preserve traditional institutions
      • A new balance of power
        • Strengthen countries to prevent one country from dominating
conservative ideology
Conservative Ideology
    • Conservative political thought
      • Obedience to political authority
      • Organized religion was crucial to social order
      • Hated revolutionary upheavals
        • Advocated slow, gradual changes
      • Unwilling to accept liberal demands or representative government
  • Congress of Vienna sought to weaken France and maintain a balance power
  • Congress of Vienna managed to prevent an all out European conflict for almost a century
conservative domination the concert of europe
Conservative Domination: The Concert of Europe
  • The Concert of Europe
    • Fear of Revolution & war led to development of the Concert of Europe
    • Met several times: congresses
    • Quintuple Alliance
      • Withdraw armies from France, add France to the Concert of Europe
Principle of intervention
    • Great powers reserved the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne
    • Britain objected to the principle of intervention leading to a breakdown in the Concert of Europe
    • Britain’s refusal kept Continental Europe from interfering in revolutions in Latin America
the revolt of latin america
The Revolt of Latin America
  • Bourbon monarchy of Spain toppled
  • Latin American countries begin declaring independence
    • Simón Bolivar (1783-1830)
      • Freed Columbia (1819) & Venezuela (1821)
    • José de San Martín (1778-1850)
      • Freed Chile (1817)
      • After 1825, almost all of Latin America was free of colonial domination
      • Continental Europe looked to intervene, U.S. passed the Monroe Doctrine pledging to support Latin American countries
        • British Navy was more of a deterrent than U.S. words
  • Britain began to dominate Latin American economy
    • British merchants & investors moved in
Intervention in the Italian States and Spain
    • Conservative reaction against the forces of nationalism and liberalism
      • Austrian forces intervene in Italy
      • French forces intervene in Spain
  • Repression in Central Europe
    • Metternich and the forces of reaction
    • Liberal and national movements in Germany
      • Initially weak & remained controlled by landowning class
    • Burschenshaften – students societies, dedicated to a free and united Germany (symbol of growing liberalism and nationalism)
    • Karlsbad Decrees (1819)
      • Metternich had this decree drawn up by the Germanic Confederation in response to the Burschenschaften
        • The Karlsbad Decrees (1819)
          • Disbanded the Burschenschaften
          • Censored the press
          • Supervised universities
          • Restrictions on university activities
    • Start of 19th century, Russia was rural, agricultural, and autocratic
    • Alexander I (1801-1825)
      • Raised on ideas of the Enlightenment & seemed sympathetic to reform
      • Leader of Russia during Napoleonic Wars
      • After the defeat of Napoleon, his rule turned stricter leading to opposition
      • Used censorship to govern the people
    • Nicholas I (1825-1855)
      • Military leaders of the Northern Union rebelled against Nicholas I taking the throne (Decembrist Revolt)
      • Revolt was crushed by loyal troops
      • Russia became a police state (secret police)
        • Nicholas feared revolutions in Russia & in Europe
political liberalism
Political liberalism
  • Ideology of political liberalism
    • Believed in individual freedom
    • Protection of civil liberties
    • Freedom before the law, assembly, speech, press
    • Modeled after the Declaration of Independence & the Rights of Man & Citizen
    • The rights of a representative assembly (legislature) to make laws
    • Political liberalism was embraced by the industrial middle class
    • They wanted voting rights so they could share power with the landowning class but they didn’t advocate extending those rights to the lower class
  • Part of a community with common institutions, traditions, language, and customs
  • The community is called a “nation”
    • Formation of political loyalty
  • Nationalist ideology
    • Arose from the French Revolution and spread across Europe
    • National unity in Germany or Italy threatened to upset the balance of power established with the Congress of Vienna
    • Independent Hungarian state would breakup the Austrian Empire
    • Conservatives tried to repress nationalism (Concert of Europe)
  • Allied with liberalism
    • Liberals believed their goals could only be realized by people who ruled themselves
    • Nationalists believed that stronger states comprised of their own people would eventually link communities and ultimately humanity
revolution and reform 1830 1850
Revolution and Reform, 1830-1850
  • Another French Revolution
    • Charles X (1824-1830)
      • Liberals were winning elections which angered the king
      • Issued the July Ordinances
        • Rigid censorship
        • Dissolved the legislative assembly
        • Reduced the electorate in preparation for new elections
      • Immediate revolt by liberals
Louis-Philippe (1830-1848)
    • Group of moderate liberals appealed to Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans to become the constitutional king of France
    • Charles X fled to Great Britain & a new monarchy was born
    • The bourgeois monarch – support for his rule came from the upper middle class
    • Constitutional changes favor the upper bourgeoisie
      • Lower bourgeoisie & working class are disappointed that they are excluded from political power
revolutionary outbursts in belgium poland and italy nationalism
Revolutionary Outbursts in Belgium, Poland, and Italy (Nationalism)
  • Primary driving force for these three 1830 revolution was nationalism.
  • Austrian Netherlands (Catholic Belgium) given to (Protestant) Dutch Republic by the Congress of Vienna
  • Nationalistic revolt by the Belgians (Protestants) established a constitutional monarchy
  • Revolt attempts in Poland and Italy
    • Austrians crushed Italian revolution
    • Russians crushed Polish revolution
reform in great britain
Reform in Great Britain
  • The Reform Act of 1832
    • New political power for industrial urban communities (Whigs take power over Tories)
    • July Revolution in France set the stage for change
    • Benefited the upper middle class (wealthy industrial middle class)
      • Reform Act of 1832 – Industrial communities gained a voice in voting
      • Number of voters increased from 478,000 – 814,000
      • Artisans, industrial workers & lower middle classes still had no vote
  • New Reform Legislation
    • Poor Law of 1834 – based on the theory that giving aid to the poor & unemployed would encourage laziness
      • The poor were crowded into workhouses where the living & working conditions were intentionally miserable so people would be encouraged to find employment
    • Repeal of the Corn Laws (1846)
      • Economic liberals advocated free trade & lower bread prices for workers
the revolutions of 1848
The Revolutions of 1848
  • Yet Another French Revolution
    • 1846 – agricultural & industrial depression
    • 1847 – 33% unemployment rate in Paris
    • Government was corrupt & failed to initiate reform
      • No suffrage for the middle class
    • Louis-Philippe abdicates, February 24, 1848 (fled to Britain)
    • Provisional government established
      • Elections to be by universal male suffrage
      • National workshops – jobs for unemployed
      • Growing split between moderate and liberal republicans
        • Moderate Government – most of France
        • Radical liberals – Parisian working class
Provisional government established workshops under the influence of Louis Blanc
    • Unemployed workers got jobs raking leafs, ditch digging & other manual labor jobs
    • Unemployed workers in the national workshops rose from 10,000 to 120,000, emptying the treasury & prompting moderates to halt the programs
    • Became little more than unemployment compensation units through public works projects
    • Workers refused to except the decision leading to four days of fighting in this working class revolt (government prevailed)
  • Second Republic established
    • New Constitution ratified
    • Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte was elected in December, 1848 (nephew of Napoleon)
revolution in central europe
Revolution in Central Europe
  • French revolts led to promises of reform
    • Frederick William IV (1840-1861)
      • Germanic state rulers made concessions to the growing revolutionary sentiments
        • Freedom of press, abolishing censorship, new constitutions, & working towards a united Germany
      • Frankfurt Assembly
        • All German parliament elected by universal male suffrage
        • Purpose was to prepare a constitution for a united Germany
        • Frederick William IV refused the offer of “emperor of the Germans”
        • Frankfurt Assembly disbanded without accomplishing their goal of a united Germany
austrian empire
Austrian Empire

Louis Kossuth, Hungary

    • Advocated the formation of a legislature
  • Metternich flees the country after demonstrations begin & he is dismissed from office
  • In Vienna, revolutionary forces took control calling for a constituent assembly
  • Hungary’s wishes granted
    • Own Legislature
    • National army
    • Control over its foreign policy & budget
austria cont d
Austria Cont’d
  • Emperor Ferdinand I & Austrian officials made concessions to revolutionaries but waited for an opportunity to reassert conservative control
  • Tried to capitalize on division between radical & moderate revolutionaries
  • Military forces suppressed Czech rebels
  • Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his nephew
  • Francis Joseph I (1848-1916)
  • Nicholas I of Russia sent in troops to defeat Kossuth’s forces and suppress the revolution
    • Austrian emperor & propertied classes remained in power
the failures of 1848
The Failures of 1848
  • Division within the revolutionaries
    • Radicals and liberals
    • Liberties from propertied classes failed to extend male suffrage to the working classes
    • Liberals were concerned about their property & security & the fear of a social revolution by the working class
  • Divisions among nationalities
    • Hungarians demanded autonomy from Austrians but refused to offer the same autonomy to their minorities
the emergence of an ordered society
The Emergence of an Ordered Society
  • Development of a regular system of police
    • Purpose of police
      • Preserve property & lives, maintain domestic order, investigate crime, & arrest offenders & to create a disciplined law-abiding society
  • French Police forces in France and England
  • Crime and Social Reform
  • Prison Reform
nationalism the france of napoleon iii louis napoleon the 2 nd napoleonic empire
NationalismThe France of Napoleon III: Louis Napoleon & the 2nd Napoleonic Empire
  • Louis Napoleon: Toward the Second Empire
    • Used nationalistic & liberal forces to bolster his power
    • National Assembly rejected his call for revision of constitution to allow him to stand for reelection
    • Responded by seizing government with the military
    • Restored universal male suffrage
      • People elected him president for 10 years so the empire could be restored
    • Voted him in by an overwhelming majority
      • Assumed the title of Napoleon III, December 2, 1852
The Second Napoleonic Empire
    • Authoritarian government
    • Early domestic policies
      • Economic prosperity
        • Used government spending to stimulate the economy
      • Reconstruction of Paris
        • Built railroads, harbors, roads, & canals
        • Built hospitals & housing for the people
        • Baron Haussmann (civil engineer)
          • Modernized Paris
          • Wider streets, sewage system, water supply, gaslights
    • Liberalization of the regime in the face of opposition
      • Legalized trade unions & gave them the right to strike
      • Strengthened power of the government
foreign policy crimean war
Foreign policy: Crimean War
  • The Ottoman Empire
    • Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
      • Encroachment of the Russian Empire
      • Loss of territory
  • The War
    • Russian demand to protect Christian shrines (Privilege already given to the French)
    • Ottomans refuse; Russia invades Moldavia and Wallachia
    • Turks declare war, October 4, 1853
    • Britain and France declare war on Russia, March 28, 1854
    • Austria remains neutral & does not give the military support Russia was counting on
    • War ends in March, 1856 (Treaty of Paris)
      • High death count on both sides due to disease
    • Political effects of the war
      • Destroys the Concert of Europe
      • Austria & Russia now enemies
      • Russia withdraws from European affairs, so does Britain
      • Sets the stage for German & Italian unification
national unification italy
National Unification: Italy
  • Kingdom of Piedmont
    • Northern Italian state that had historically stood up to the Austrian Empire
    • Victor Emmanuel II (1849-1878) of Kingdom of Piedmont
      • Names Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) as prime minister
    • Napoleon III’s alliance with Piedmont, 1858
      • Cavour agrees to give Napoleon Nice and Savoy in exchange for military support in driving Austria out of Italy
    • War with Austria, 1859
      • France wins a couple of early battles and made peace
      • Prussia was mobilizing to support Austria
    • Northern states join Piedmont (nationalists rose up)
    • Italian nationalists in the 1850’s looked to Piedmont for leadership to provide unification of Italy
national unification italy1
National Unification: Italy
  • Guiseppi Garibaldi (1807-1882)
    • The Red Shirts (Volunteer Army)
    • Invasion of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 1860
    • Moved up the Peninsula until an army from Piedmont moved south
    • Garibaldi backs down to prevent a civil war
  • Kingdom of Italy, March 17, 1861
  • Annexation of Venetia, 1866
    • Italy became an ally to Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866
  • Annexation of Rome, 1870
    • French troops withdrew due to the Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871
    • Rome became the capital of a unified Italy
national unification germany
National Unification: Germany
  • Zollverein, German customs union which began to unite German states economically
  • William I, 1861-1888
    • Wanted military reforms – planned to double the army’s size
  • Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) (prime minister)`
    • Reorganization and mobilization of the army
    • Realpolitik – political realist, ruling by opportunity, not ideology
    • Bypassed parliament in pursuing political goals
  • The Danish War (1864)
    • Bismarck always fought an isolated opponent
  • Schleswig and Holstein
    • Austria & Germany defeated Denmark & split control of the two territories
    • Joint administration with Austria
austro prussian war 1866
Austro-Prussian War (1866)
  • Austro-Prussian War (1866)
    • Russia remains neutral out of anger over Austria not helping them in the Crimean War
    • Bismarck buys French neutrality by promising him land
  • Austrian defeat at Königgratz, July 3, 1866
    • Prussian breech-loading needle gun had a faster rate of fire
    • Prussian troops moved faster due to network of railroads
    • Signed an easy peace with Austria to avoid creating a hostile enemy
  • North German Confederation – organized states, signed a military alliance with Southern states (mainly Catholic)
  • Bismarck proved nationalism & authoritarian government could be combined successfully
  • King & Chancellor (Bismarck) held the real power, but two houses of Parliament had elected officials from the German States
franco prussian war 1870 1871
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871)
  • Two major powers in continental Europe were bound to clash (Prussia & France)
  • Dispute with France over the throne of Spain
    • Throne was offered to distant relative of Prussian King
    • Bismarck edited a telegram from the king to goad the French into war
  • French declaration of war, July 15, 1870
  • Battle of Sedan, September 2, 1870
    • Entire French army & Napoleon III are captured
  • Siege of Paris, capitulates January 28, 1871
    • France paid 5 billion francs
    • Gave up provinces of Alsace & Lorraine to Germany
  • Southern German states join Northern German Confederation
  • William I proclaimed kaiser, January 8, 1871, of the Second German Empire
  • British Prime Minister felt German unification destroyed the previous balance of power
the austrian empire toward a dual monarchy
The Austrian Empire: Toward a Dual Monarchy
  • Ausgleich, Compromise, 1867
    • Creates a dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
    • Each monarchy had a separate constitution & legislature
    • German speaking Austrians and Hungarian Magyars dominate minorities
    • Francis Joseph Emperor of Austria/King of Hungary
    • Some things held in common
      • Army
      • Finances
      • Foreign policy
imperial russia
Imperial Russia
  • Alexander II, 1855-1881
    • Emancipation of serfs, March 3, 1861
      • Peasants could own property, marry as they chose, & file suits in court
    • Problems with emancipation
      • Government bought land from nobles & sold it to the peasants with long term installment plans
      • Land was often the worst available
      • Peasants worked for gov. instead of nobles
    • Zemstvos (local assemblies)
      • Dominated by noble landowners
      • Created a local system of courts & judicial code of equality before the law
Growing dissatisfaction
    • Conservatives & liberals were upset with reforms
  • Assassination of Alexander II (1881)
    • Populism – student & intellectual group looking to create a new society through revolutionary acts
    • Alexander is shot & killed by another radical group known as the People’s Will
  • Alexander III (1881-1894)
    • Return to traditional methods of repression
great britain the victorian age
Great Britain: The Victorian Age
  • Did not experience revolts in 1848
    • Reforms
    • Economic growth
  • Queen Victoria (1837 – 1901) reflected the age
    • Symbol of high morals and national pride – Victorian Age
  • Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)
    • Tory (Conservative) Party leader
    • Extension of voting rights
    • Reform Act, 1867
      • Lowered voting requirements (taxes paid or income earned)
      • More male urban workers could vote
      • Increased overall number of voters
      • Established tighter organization of Liberal & Conservative parties
William Gladstone (first administration, 1868 – 1874)
    • Leader of Liberal party (Whigs)
    • Responsible for liberal reform acts
      • Civil Service Exams
      • Secret Ballot
    • Education Act of 1870
      • Attempted to provide free public education at the elementary school level
industrialization on the continent
Industrialization on the Continent
  • Continental industrialization comes of age (1850 – 1871)
  • Mechanization of textile and cotton industries
  • Growth of iron and coal industries
    • Fueled by the expansion of railroads
      • 1850 – 14,500 miles of track in Europe
      • 1870 – 70,000 miles of track in Europe
  • Elimination of trade barriers stimulated economic growth
  • Government support and financing
    • Joint-stock investment banks were crucial to stimulation of industrial development
marx and marxism
Marx and Marxism
  • Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), The Communist Manifesto, 1848
    • History is the history of class struggle
    • Stages of history
    • End result of history is a classless society
    • “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!”
  • After 1848 Revolutions, Marx went to London
    • Marx, Das Kapital (writing on political economy)
  • International Working Men’s Association, 1864
    • First International - Organization for working-class interests (formed by British & French trade unions)
a new age of science
A New Age of Science
  • Development of the steam engine led to scientific relationship between heat and mechanical energy
  • Louis Pasteur – germ theory of disease
    • 1863 – Pasteurization, process of heating a product to destroy organisms causing spoilage
  • Dmitri Mendeleyev – atomic weights and formation of periodic law
  • Michael Faraday – discovered electromagnetic induction and created first generator
  • Science and Materialism
    • People turned to science for answers rather than religion
    • Truth was to be found in the concrete existence of human beings, not religious and romantic ideals
    • Growing secularization of population
charles darwin and the theory of organic evolution
Charles Darwin and the Theory of Organic Evolution
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
    • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, 1859
      • All plants and animals have evolved over a long period of time
      • Those who survived had adapted to the environment
    • The Descent of Man, 1871
      • Discussed the humans origin from animals
    • Ideas highly controversial; gradually accepted
      • Later applied to society with social darwinism
the growth of industrial prosperity new products new markets
The Growth of Industrial Prosperity: New Products & New Markets
  • Mass Society
  • In the late 19th century, human progress was measured with material progress and consumption of material goods
    • Europeans began to value leisure activities and the weekend (free from work)
    • Lower and middle class began to take trains to amusement parks and the beach
  • Mass Politics
  • After 1871, the focus of European life became the national state
    • Growing sense of nationalism and popularity of sports
    • Extension of universal male suffrage leads to nationalism to influence the masses
  • First Industrial Revolution
    • Textiles, railroads, iron, and coal
  • Second Industrial Revolution
    • Steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum
Internal Combustion Engine (1878-Gas & Air)
    • Automobile and airplane
      • Henry Ford (1863-1947) – mass production (assembly line)
      • Zeppelin airship, 1900
      • Wright brothers, 1903 (1st passenger air service 1919)
  • New markets
    • Focused on consumer goods for domestic markets
    • Prices of food and manufactured goods decreased
    • Increased wages
    • Competition for foreign markets
    • Tariff
      • Reaction against free trade to guarantee domestic markets for their own industries
    • Cartels
      • Companies worked together to fix prices & set production quotas
    • Larger factories
      • Assembly lines
new patterns in an industrial economy
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • Economic Patterns, 1873 – 1914
    • Depression, 1873 – 1895
    • Economic boom, 1895 – 1914
  • German Industrial Leadership
    • Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of Europe
    • New areas of manufacturing (chemicals, electrical equipment)
    • Industrialized later, so they invested in modern equipment
    • Encouraged scientific & technical education
European Economic Zones
    • Advanced industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium France, the Netherlands, Germany, western part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and northern Italy
    • Little industrial development in southern Italy, most of Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan kingdoms, and Russia
    • Surplus grain and cheap transportation caused a sharp drop in agricultural prices.
  • The Spread of Industrialization
    • Industrialization in Russia and Japan
    • Japan’s government took the lead in promoting industry
  • Emergence of a World Economy
    • Europe was importing goods from around the world
    • Foreign countries were used as markets for the surplus of manufactured goods
women and work new job opportunities
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
  • Women sought the “Right to work”
  • Ideal of Domesticity – working class organizations supported traditional roles for women
  • Sweatshops – subcontracting work out to women at home
  • White-Collar Jobs
    • Increase in white-collar jobs created a shortage of male workers opening up opportunities for women (After 1870)
    • Expansion of service sector jobs - secretaries, teachers & nurses
    • Freedom from domestic patterns
  • Prostitution
    • Many lower class women became prostitutes in big cities as a way to survive
    • London – 1885 – an estimated 60,000 prostitutes
    • Contagious Diseases Acts in the 1870s & 1880s
      • Called for inspection of prostitutes for venereal diseases
      • Acts were repealed over complaints that men were not being checked
organizing the working class
Organizing the Working Class
  • Trade Unions
  • First half of the 19th Century
    • Trade Unions functioned as mutual aid societies
  • Late 19th Century
    • Formed labor unions and political parties based on ideas of Karl Marx
    • Trade unions are increasingly aligned with socialist parties
  • Socialist Parties
    • German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
      • Largest German political party by 1912
    • Growth of socialist parties – spread to other European countries
    • Second International – united socialist organization
      • Struggled due to internal differences
      • Two divisive issues: nationalism and revisionism
Evolutionary Socialism (Revisionism)
      • Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932)
        • Member of the German Social Democratic Party who spent years in exile in Britain
        • Argued that Marx had made fundamental mistakes and socialists needed to stress cooperation and evolution rather than class conflict and revolution
        • Stressed the need to work through democratic politics to create socialism, not revolution.
The Problem of Nationalism
    • Variation of socialist parties from country to country
    • Focused on issues in their own countries instead of a unified workers movement
  • The Role of Trade Unions
    • National variations
      • German unions were the strongest
    • Unions and political parties
  • The Anarchist Alternative
    • More popular in less industrialized nations (Italy, Spain, Russia, & Portugal) where people saw no hope of peaceful political change
    • Initially believed that people were inherently good but got corrupted by the state and society
    • Socialist parties and trade unions became less radical so some people turned to anarchism as a means for a social revolution
    • Michael Bakunin
      • Russian anarchist who advocated violence to dissolve state institutions
emergence of a mass society
Emergence of a Mass Society
  • Population Growth
    • 1850 270 million
    • 1910 460 million
    • Population growth
    • 1850-1880 – caused by increasing birth rate
    • After 1880 – caused by declining mortality rate
      • Medical discoveries and environmental conditions
        • Smallpox vaccination
      • Improved publication sanitation
        • Reduced deaths from diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid fever, cholera
      • Improved nutrition
        • Better nutrition & food hygiene
        • Faster shipment of food
        • Pasteurization of milk
  • Emigration
    • Economic motives
      • Oppressed minorities went to other countries (especially U.S)
    • Political motives
      • Lower class citizens seeking more freedom
transformation of the urban environment
Transformation of the Urban Environment
  • Urbanization of Europe
    • Migration from rural to urban
    • 1800 – 21 European cities with a population of 100,000+
    • 1900 – 147 European cities with a population of 100,000+
    • People moved to the cities for job opportunities
  • Improving Living Conditions
    • Reformers: Edwin Chadwick and Rudolf Virchow
    • Pointed to relationship between living conditions and disease
    • Buildings begin to be inspected for problems
    • Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain
      • Clean water into the city
      • Private baths (Hot water) became accessible to people in 1860s
      • Shower appears in 1880s
      • Sewage System
Housing Needs
    • Reformer-philanthropists focused on relationship of living conditions to political and moral health of the nation – built homes for the poor
    • Government support – increase in regulations
    • Demolition of old, unneeded urban defensive walls and new, wider streets
    • Octavia Hill rehabilitated old homes and built new ones designed to give the poor an environment they could use to improve themselves
  • Redesigning the Cities
    • Major European cities were redesigned after the example of Paris in the 1850s
    • Construction of streetcars & commuter trains created suburbs
the social structure of the society
The Social Structure of the Society
  • The Upper Classes
    • 5% of the population that controlled 30 to 40% of wealth
    • Plutocrats – aristocrats who made their money on investments in railroads, public utilities, government bonds, & businesses
    • Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
    • Common bonds – wealthy middle class kids admitted to elite schools
  • The Middle Classes
    • Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class
    • Professionals (law, medicine, civil service)
      • New professionals – engineers, architects, accountants, chemists
    • White-collar workers (product of the 2nd Industrial Revolution)
      • Sales reps, bookkeepers, bank tellers, telephone operators, secretaries, department store clerks
    • Middle-class values came to dominate
      • Concerned with traditional Christian values and work ethic
The Lower classes
    • 80 percent of the European population
    • Agriculture
      • Many were landholding peasants – sharecroppers, laborers
    • Urban working class: Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled workers 
      • Skilled artisans – cabinet makers, printers, jewelry makers
      • semiskilled artisans – carpenters, bricklayers, factory workers
      • Unskilled laborers – day laborers, domestic services
the woman question the role of women
The “Woman Question”: The Role of Women
  • Traditional Values
    • Marriage the only honorable and available career
    • Decline in the birth rate in part to some birth control
    • 1840s-invention of vulcanized rubber made birth control an option
    • Elizabeth Poole Sanford encouraged women to avoid being self-sufficient. Thought women should embrace domesticity and dependence on their husbands.
  • Middle-Class and Working-Class Families
    • Glorified Domesticity
    • Domestic ideal for the family emphasized togetherness with time for leisure
    • Stressed functional knowledge for their children to prepare them for future roles.
    • Daughters of working class families worked until married
    • 1890 – 1914: higher paying jobs made it possible to live on husband’s wages
      • Limit size of the family
      • Reduced work week
education in the mass society
Expansion of Secondary Education

Universal Elementary Education

States began to offer public education

By 1900, most were free and compulsory at the primary level

States assumed the responsibility for teacher training

Liberal Beliefs About Education

Personal and social development

Needs of industrialization

Differences in education of boys and girls

Girls - less math & science, more domestic skills

Boys – humanities plus carpentry & military drill

Political motives

Need for an educated electorate

Instilled patriotism and nationalized the masses

Female Teachers

Increased Literacy from mass education

Growth of Newspapers

Education in the Mass Society
western europe the growth of political democracy
Western Europe: The Growth of Political Democracy
  • Reform in Britain: William Gladstone
    • Reform Act of 1867: Suffrage extended
    • English Reform Bill of 1884
      • Gave English agricultural workers the right to vote
    • Redistribution Act of 1885: Reorganized the election boroughs
    • Salaries paid to members of the House of Commons, 1911
      • More people could run for office
    • Charles Parnell (1846-1891)
      • Leader of the Irish representatives in Parliament
      • Called for Home Rule for Ireland
      • This would have established a separate Parliament for Ireland
      • English conservatives voted against home rule
        • Resulted in terrorist attacks by the Irish
Reform in France
    • Louis Napoleon’s 2nd Empire ended with his defeat in the Franco-Prussian War
    • Universal male suffrage in 1871 enforced by Bismarck
      • People elected a new National Assembly
    • Radical republicans formed an independent government in Paris known as the Commune
      • Fighting broke out between the Commune and the National Assembly
      • National Assembly massacred thousands of members of the Paris Commune
      • Brutal suppression of the Paris Commune created a split between the working class and the middle class
    • Establishment of the Third Republic, 1875
    • Monarchists, Catholic clergy and army officers opposed the Third Republic
    • General Georges Boulanger - leader of a proposed coup d’etat
      • Lost the courage to carry it out and fled the country
      • Boulanger crisis rallied French citizens to the republic
    • Had pretensions of great power status
    • Sectional differences in Italy
    • Italians were loyal to their family, towns and regions, but not their country
    • Chronic turmoil beyond the government’s control
    • No universal male suffrage
    • Italy & Spain
      • Both remained second rate European powers
central eastern europe persistence of the old order
Central & Eastern Europe:Persistence of the Old Order
  • Germany
    • Trappings of parliamentary government
    • 1871 constitution
    • Emperor commands the military in Prussian tradition
    • Bismarck’s conservatism
      • Used coalitions to get what he wanted & then he dropped them
      • Kulturkampf - “struggle for civilization” an attack on Catholic Church
      • Tried to weaken Social Democratic Party by passing antisocialist law
      • Tried to woo workers from socialism by passing social welfare programs
    • Austrian constitution of 1867 (in reality it was still an autocracy)
    • Problem of minorities worsened with universal male suffrage, 1907
  • Russia
    • Alexander III, 1881-1894: Overturns reform and returns to repressive measures (autocracy) after assassination of Alexander II
    • Nicholas II, 1894-1917: Believed in absolute rule
toward the modern consciousness developments in the sciences
Toward the Modern Consciousness: Developments in the Sciences
  • European Intellectual Community
    • Prior to WWI – prominent thinkers had a sense of confusion and anxiety about an impending catastrophe
    • Brought on by the growth of nationalism and technology
  • The Certainty of Science
    • Based on ideas from the Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment
    • Late 19th century - scientists questioned established scientific theories
  • Marie Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906)
    • Marie won Nobel Prizes in physics & chemistry
    • Discovered radiation (Marie ironically died from leukemia)
    • Atoms – small worlds with protons & electrons
    • Their experiments spawned a new theme in physics that studied the disintegrative processes within atoms
Max Planck (1858-1947)
    • Energy radiated discontinuously (irregular packets of quanta)
    • Formation of quantum theory
    • Raised questions about the subatomic realm of the atom & the building blocks of the material world
    • New physicists began to challenge and ultimately invalidate some of the work of Newton
  • Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
    • Theory of relativity – space & time are not absolute
    • Four dimensional space-time continuum
    • Energy of the atom
toward a new understanding of the irrational
Toward a New Understanding of the Irrational
  • Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
    • Glorifies the irrational
      • Claimed humans at the whim of irrational life forces
    • “God is dead”
      • Critique of Christianity
      • Felt Christianity weakened Western creativity
    • Concept of the superman
      • Superior intellectuals must rise up and lead the masses
    • Rejected democracy, social reform, & universal suffrage
  • Henri Bergson (1859 – 1941)
    • French philosopher who accepted rational thought but thought it was incapable of arriving at truth.
  • Georges Sorel (1847 – 1922)
    • Advocated revolutionary socialism through violence
sigmund freud psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
  • The Interpretation of Dreams, 1900
    • Foundation of psychoanalysis
  • The Unconscious
    • Human behavior was influenced by the unconscious and by inner desires
  • Id, Ego, and Superego
    • Id – center of unconscious (pleasure principle)
    • Ego – reason, coordinator of life (reality principle)
    • Superego – moral values of society
    • The superego served to force the ego to curb the unsatisfactory drives of the id.
  • Dreams were the repression of unconscious desires
  • Oedipus Complex for men (Electra for women)
    • Desire for the parent of the opposite sex
social darwinism and racism
Social Darwinism and Racism
  • Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
    • British philosopher who applied Darwin’s ideas to society
    • Societies are organisms that evolve through time by struggling with their environment.
    • Progress came from the “struggle for survival”
  • Nationalism and Racism
    • Friedrich von Bernhardi (German general)
      • Thought war was necessary for culture
      • Evolutionary role “survival of the fittest”
    • Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)
      • The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, 1890
      • Claimed Aryans were the creators of Western culture
      • Modern day Germans were the pure successors of “Aryans”
      • Aryan must be prepared to fight for Western Civilization
the attack on christianity
The Attack on Christianity
  • Challenges to Established Churches
    • Scientific inquiry
    • Modernization – migration to the city weakened the base of the church set in village cultures
    • New political movements – governments reestablished ties with the churches after 1848 Revolutions
    • Anticlericalism – backlash against union of church & state after 1848 revolutions
    • Biblical higher criticism
      • Ernst Renan wrote Life of Jesus
      • Questioned the historical accuracy of the Bible
      • Denied the divinity of Jesus
Response of the Churches
    • Rejection: Pope Pius IX, Syllabus of Errors
      • Rigid stand against nationalism, socialism, religious toleration, & freedom of speech & press
    • Adaptation: modernism
      • New view on the Bible as a book of moral ideas
      • Encouraged Christians to get involved in social reform
      • Catholic Church condemned Modernism in 1907
    • Compromise: Pope Leo XIII
      • Permitted the teaching of evolution as a theory
      • De Rerum Novarum (1891)
        • Asserted that socialism was Christian principle
        • upheld right to private property
        • condemned evils of capitalism
        • urged followers to join unions & social reform groups (attempt to reconnect with the working class)
modernism in the arts
Modernism in the Arts
  • Impressionism
    • Use of light and color
    • Left the studio & went out to paint what they saw
    • Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
      • Beginning of impressionist art
      • Urged artists to paint nature, people and their surroundings
      • Capture light, running water, emotion
    • Berthe Morisot (1841-1895)
      • Female artist who used lighter colors and flowing brush strokes
  • Post-Impressionism
    • Kept the Light and color of impression and combined it with structure and form
    • Shifted from objective reality to subjective reality
    • Viewed as the beginning of modern art
    • Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) – Woman with Coffee Pot
    • Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890) Starry Night
The Search for Individual Expression
    • Photography
    • Cubism: Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
      • Use of geometric designs to re-create reality
    • Abstract Expressionism: Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) Abstract painting
  • Modernism in Music
    • Included:
    • Attraction to the exotic, nationalist themes, folk music and the lure of the primitive
    • Edvard Grieg (1843 – 1907)
      • Scandinavian composer who used folk music to present nationalist themes
    • Claude Debussy (1862 – 1918)
      • Impressionist musician who used music to evoke the emotion of poetry
    • Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) Rites of Spring
      • Classic example of modernism in music
      • Use of pulsating rhythm, sharp dissonances, and sensual dancing caused a riot at its debut in Paris
    • Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929)
      • Russian ballet director who worked with Stravinsky
jews in the european nation state
Jews in the European Nation-State
  • By the end of the 19th century, Jews were emancipated in most countries with some restrictions
    • Allowed them to get involved in politics and move out of the ghetto
  • Anti-Semitism
    • Revival of hatred towards Jews
    • Portrayed as the murders of Jesus
    • Strongest anti-Semitism was in Eastern Europe (Germany, Austria, & Russia)
  • Persecution in Eastern Europe
    • Pogroms (massacres) in Russia
  • Emigration
    • Jews moved to U.S., Canada & Palestine
  • The Zionist Movement
    • Zionism
      • Planned migration to Palestine to form a Jewish state
    • Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) leader of the Zionist Movement
    • The Jewish State, 1896
      • Advocated Jews returning to Israel (Palestine) to form a Jewish state
      • Gained support from Jewish bankers
      • Slowly, Jews began to emigrate to Palestine
the transformation of liberalism great britain italy
The Transformation of Liberalism: Great Britain & Italy
  • Britain
    • Working Class Demands
      • Caused Liberals to move away from ideals (like laissez-faire)
    • Trade Unions
      • Advocate “collective ownership” and other controls
      • Unions grow in power
      • Strike to demand a minimum wage
    • Fabian Socialists
      • Stressed for workers to use their right to vote to capture the House of Commons and pass legislation to help the laboring class
      • They were not Marxists
      • They wanted social revolution through democratic means
    • Britain’s Labour Party
      • Fabian Socialists & trade unions joined forces to form the Labour Party
David Lloyd George (1863-1945)
      • Abandons laissez-faire
      • Backs social reform measures
      • In order to implement the Liberal Party’s social reforms, he curtails the power of the House of Lords
      • National Insurance Act, 1911
        • Sick pay, unemployment
      • Beginnings of the welfare state
        • Later legislation provided a small pension plan & worker’s compensation
        • Tax increases implemented on the wealthy class
  • Italy
    • Giovanni Giolitti (1903 – 1914)
      • Prime Minister of Italy
    • Transformismo (policy of Giolitti)
      • Transformism – political groups were transformed into new government coalitions by political & economic bribery
      • Giolitti’s policy eventually make Italian politics corrupt & unmanageable
france travails of the third republic
France: Travails of the Third Republic
  • Dreyfus Affair (1895 – 1906)
    • Evidence of renewed anti-Semitism in Europe
    • Dreyfus was a Jewish captain in the French military
    • Accused and found guilty of being a spy, sentenced to life on Devil’s Island
    • More evidence revealed that the spy was a Catholic officer
    • Military refused to try the Catholic officer
    • Dreyfus was eventually pardoned
  • Rise of Radical Republicans
    • Determined to make France more democratic
    • Targeted the army and the Catholic Church
  • Purge of anti-republican individuals and institutions
    • 1905- separation of church and state
growing tensions in germany
Growing Tensions in Germany
  • William II (1888-1918)
    • Ran Germany as a authoritarian, conservative, military state
  • Military and industrial power
    • By 1914, Germany was the strongest military and industrial power in Europe
  • Pan-German League (radical right-wing politics)
  • Advocated:
    • Strong German Nationalism
    • Imperialism to united different social classes at home
    • Anti-liberal policies
    • Anti-Semitic policies
austria hungary the problem of the nationalities
Austria-Hungary: The Problem of the Nationalities
  • Parliamentary agitation for autonomy of nationalities
    • Granting universal male suffrage only increased the problem of governing multiple ethnic groups
  • Growth of German nationalism from a German minority group caused problems in Austria
  • Magyar (Hungarian land owning class) agitation for complete separation of Hungary from Austria
    • New Hungarian parliamentary leader kept Magyars from rising up and worked to keep the Dual Monarchy (Austria-Hungary) intact
industrialization and revolution in imperial russia
Industrialization and Revolution in Imperial Russia
  • In 1890s, government sponsored massive industrialization
  • By 1900 the fourth largest producer of steel
    • Development of working class
    • Development of socialist parties
  • Marxist Social Democratic Party, Minsk, 1898
  • The Revolution of 1905
    • Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
      • Russia’s defeat led indirectly to the Revolution of 1905
    • “Bloody Sunday” January 9, 1905
      • Transport system wasn’t working due to the war, which led to food shortages
      • Workers went to the Winter Palace to present a list of grievances to the Tsar
      • Royal troops fired on the peaceful protest killing hundreds
      • Workers called for strikes and organized unions
    • General strike, October 1905
    • Under pressure, Nicholas II granted civil liberties and a legislative body, the Duma
    • Curtailment of power of the Duma, 1907 
the rise of the united states
The Rise of the United States
  • Shift to an industrial nation, 1860-1914
    • World’s richest nation and greatest industrial power
  • 9 percent own 71 percent of wealth
  • American Federation of Labor
    • Included only 8.4 percent of industrial labor
    • Lacked real power due to low membership
  • Progressive Era
    • Reform
    • Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Woodrow Wilson, 1913-1921
    • Income tax and Federal Reserve System
the growth of canada
The Growth of Canada
  • Dominion of Canada
    • Quebec, Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick – 1870
    • Manitoba, British Columbia – 1871
    • Lack of real unity due to French Quebec
  • William Laurier, 1896, first French Canadian prime minister
    • Made peace between French Canadians and the rest of Canada
    • Helped industrialize Canada
    • Led to hundreds of thousands of immigrants
the new imperialism
The New Imperialism
  • Causes of the New Imperialism
      • Competition among European nations for prestige
      • Social Darwinism and racism
      • Religious humanitarianism, “White man’s burden”
      • Economic motives and military bases
  • The Scramble for Africa
    • South Africa
      • Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)
        • Diamond and gold companies
        • Takes the Transvaal (Dutch Region)
        • Attempts to overthrow the neighboring Boer Government
      • Boer War, 1899-1902
        • British defeat Boers (Dutch) and offer them a lenient peace
      • Union of South Africa, 1910
the scramble for africa cont
The Scramble for Africa (cont)
  • Portuguese and French Possessions
    • Mozambique
    • Angola
    • Algeria, 1830
    • West Africa and Tunis
  • The British in Egypt
  • Belgium and Central Africa
    • Leopold II, 1865-1909
    • International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Central Africa, 1876
    • Exploration of the Congo
    • French reaction is to move into territory north of the Congo River
  • German Possessions
    • Bismarck was against colonialism, he knew it helped win elections
    • South West Africa; Cameroons; Togoland; East Africa
  • Impact on Africa
    • By 1914, almost all of Africa was carved up between European powers
imperialism in asia
Imperialism in Asia
  • The British in Asia
    • James Cook to Australia, 1768-1771
    • British East India Company
    • Empress of India bestowed on Queen Victoria, 1876
  • Russian Expansion
    • Siberia
    • Reach Pacific coast, 1637
    • Korea and Manchuria
  • China
    • British acquisition of Hong Kong
    • European rivalry and the establishment of spheres of influence
  • Japan and Korea
    • Matthew Perry opens Japan, 1853-1854
  • Southeast Asia
    • British and French control
  • American Imperialism
    • US and the Spanish-American War
    • Controlled Pacific Islands for military bases to trade with Asia
responses to imperialism
Responses to Imperialism
  • Africa
    • New class of educated African leaders
    • Resentment of foreigners
    • Intellectual hatred of colonial rule
      • Political parties and movements
  • China
    • Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1901, Society of Harmonious Fists
    • Chinese nationalists who tried to kick foreigners out by force
      • Brutally put down by armies from around the world
    • Fall of the Manchu dynasty, 1912, founding of the Republic of China
    • Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)
      • Overthrew the Manchu dynasty – China remained weak
  • Japan
    • Mutsuhito (1867 – 1912) – young emperor who westernized Japan
    • Meiji Restoration
      • Created democratic political & financial institutions but remained authoritarian in practice
      • Imitation of the West – sent Japanese abroad to get a western education
  • India
    • Costs and benefits of British rule
    • Brought order & introduced technology but subjugated the people
    • Indian National Congress (1883)
    • Moderate, educated Indians began to seek self government
international rivalry and the coming of war
International Rivalry and the Coming of War
  • The Bismarckian System
    • Tried to preserve European peace
    • Wanted to isolate France (still mad over Franco-Prussian War)
    • The Balkans: Decline of Ottoman Power
      • Russia and Austria-Hungary both want territory
    • Congress of Berlin (1878)
      • Limited the size of the new Bulgarian state and humiliated Russia in front of the European powers
    • New Alliances
      • Triple Alliance, 1882 – Germany, Austria, Italy
      • Reinsurance Treaty between Russia and Germany, 1887
        • Bismarck didn’t want France and Russia to become allies
        • Warned of a possible two front war
      • Dismissal of Bismarck, 1890 by William II
New Directions and New Crises
    • Emperor William II and a “place in the sun”
      • Aggressive policy of expansion
      • Ended the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia
    • Military alliance of France and Russia, 1894
    • Triple Entente, 1907 – Britain, France, Russia
    • Triple Alliance, 1907 – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
crisis in the balkans 1908 1913
Crisis in the Balkans, 1908-1913
  • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1908
  • Serbian protest, Russian support of Serbia
  • Primary antagonists in the Balkans region were Serbs and Austrians
  • First Balkan War, 1912
    • Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, & Greece) defeats the Ottomans
  • Second Balkan War, 1913
    • Couldn’t agree on division of Ottoman provinces of Macedonia & Albania
    • Greece, Serbia, Romania, and the Ottoman Empire attacked and defeated Bulgaria
    • Serbia’s ambitions
    • London Conference
the road to world war i
The Road to World War I
  • Before the outbreak of WWI, European were optimistic about material progress
    • Felt European society was moving towards an earthly utopia
  • WWI kills millions of Europeans and brings an end to the period known as the age of progress
  • Nationalism and Internal Dissent
    • Nationalism
      • Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring peace
      • Instead it was the most responsible for triggering WWI
      • Led to competition instead of cooperation
      • Brinkmanship
        • Defended national honor
        • Believed they had to support allies to preserve their own internal security
Internal dissent
    • Ethnic tensions
      • Irish in British Empire
      • Slavic minorities in the Balkans & Austrian Empire
      • Poles in the Russian empire
    • Growing power of Socialist labor movements
      • Increase is strikes alarmed conservative leaders
    • Conscription
      • Armies doubled in size between 1890 - 1914
    • Influence of military leaders
      • Developed complex military plans that took precedence over political plans
The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914
    • The effects of the Balkan Wars prior to 1914
      • Tension between Russia & Austria for control of Balkan states
      • Nationalism pushed minority groups to seek independence
    • Immediate cause of WWI was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife Sophia, June 28, 1914
    • Germany gives “full support” to Austria
      • Blank Check
      • Austria declares war on Serbia on July 28, 1914
    • Russian mobilization
      • Germans responded with an ultimatum
      • Russians ignored it and Germany declared war on Russia
Schlieffen Plan 
    • Minimal troops against Russia
    • Quick strike against France by moving through Belgium
    • Germany declared war on France to carry out their plan
    • Britain declares war on Germany for invading Belgium neutrality
the war 1914 1915 illusions stalemate
The War 1914-1915: Illusions & Stalemate
  • European attitudes toward the beginning of war
    • Belief in a short, romantic war, that would provide a release from the dull and boring existence of mass society
    • Started in Aug. 1914 – troops thought they would be home for Christmas
  • Failure of the Schlieffen Plan
    • Right flank was weakened to prevent Russian invasion in Eastern Germany
    • British mobilized faster than expected
    • Most important consequence - Western front bogs down into trench warfare
  • First Battle of the Marne, September 6-10, 1914
    • Germans stopped.
war in the east
War in the East
  • Fighting was characterized by more mobility than the trench warfare on the Western Front, but still resulted in high numbers of casualties.
  • Russian Failures
    • Battle of Tannenberg, August 30, 1914
    • Battle of Masurian Lakes, September 15, 1914
  • Austrian Failures
    • Galicia and Serbia
    • Germans come to Austria’s aid
    • Defeat Serbia
    • Inflict heavy casualties on Russia (2.5 million dead)
    • Italy doesn’t honor prewar alliance – joins allies in 1915
the war 1916 1917 the great slaughter
The War 1916-1917: The Great Slaughter
  • Trench warfare
    • “No-man’s land” – area between trenches
    • Political pressure for military results prompted Generals to throw massive amounts of men at defensive positions
    • Daily life for the soldiers was characterized by long periods of boredom followed by artillery barrage and frontal assaults by troops
    • Trench warfare became a senseless slaughter of troops incompetent officers continually ordered their troops to accomplish impossible battlefield objectives
“Softening up” the enemy (usual tactic)
    • Artillery barrage before soldiers attack
      • intended to destroy enemy barbed wire, make them hide in bunkers, psychologically shock them and make them vulnerable to attack
  • Battle of Verdun, 1916, Germans lost 700,000 men in 10 months
  • Battle of the Somme, 1916, British lost 60,000 men in one day.
    • Heaviest one-day loss in World War I
  • As the soldiers settled into trench warfare
    • They became miserable in rat-infested trenches
    • Dealt with trench foot
    • Lost the romantic feel to the war
    • Lost morale as they waited to die
the widening of the war
The Widening of the War
  • August 1914: Ottoman Empire enters the war
    • Battle of Gallipoli, April 1915
  • May 1915: Italy enters the war against Austria-Hungary
  • September 1915: Bulgaria enters the war on the side of the Central Powers
  • Middle East
    • Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935)
  • April 1917: Entry of the United States
    • The United States tried to remain neutral
    • Sinking of the Lusitania, May 7, 1915
    • Return to unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917
    • Germany gambles – starve Britain before the U.S. enters the war
    • United States enters the war, April 6, 1917
      • Zimmerman Telegram and unrestricted submarine warfare
    • U.S. provides fresh troops and morale for the surge of 1918
a new kind of warfare
A New Kind of Warfare
  • Air Power
    • 1915: first use of airplanes on the battle-front
      • First for recon, then for combat
    • German use of zeppelins
  • Tanks
    • 1916: first use of tanks on the battlefield by British
      • Early tanks ineffective
    • 1918: British Mark V first effective tank
      • Tanks play a larger role in WWII
the home front the impact of total war
The Home Front: The Impact of Total War
  • Increased Government Centralization and expansion of Government power
  • Conscription
    • draft, or mandatory military service
    • Death rates from the war hit all social classes
    • Highest death rates
      • Junior officers from aristocracy who led charges across “no man’s land”
      • Unskilled laborers and peasants who were infantry troops
  • Effects on Economies
    • European governments gradually took full control of all aspects of their economies
    • Inflation from higher wages and scarcity of consumer goods
    • Large industrialists benefited from the war due to wartime contracts for weapons and munitions
Public Order and Public Opinion
    • Dealing with unrest
      • Use of military to break up strikes
      • Police powers were expanded to include the arrest of all dissenters
      • Loss of freedom of speech
      • Liberals and Socialists opposed the war because of wide scale human slaughter, nationalism and militarism
    • Defense of the Realm Act
      • British arrested dissenters and traitors
    • Propaganda to boost morale for the war effort
      • Work or fight campaigns
      • Music as propaganda
      • Germans “The Watch on the Rhine”
      • Americans “Over There”
      • British “The Old Barbed Wire”
  • Social Impact of Total War
    • Labor benefits – allowed unions, gained higher wages
    • New roles for women
      • Male concern over wages
      • Women began to demand equal pay
      • Gains for women
      • After the war, women demand the right to vote
the russian revolution
The Russian Revolution
  • War and Discontent
    • Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler
      • Led the military
      • Wife kept him isolated from the reality of domestic disturbances
    • Russia not prepared for war
      • Incompetent political leadership of Nicholas II
      • Lack of guns and ammunition
      • Over 2 million killed, 4-6 million wounded or captured
    • Influence of Rasputin (the mad monk)
      • Holy man who influenced Tsar Nicolas’s wife and eventually the Tsar’s decisions
      • Series of military and economic disasters caused Russians to lose faith in the Tsar
      • Conservative aristocracy assassinated Rasputin
The March Revolution
    • Problems in Petrograd
      • Bread rationing
    • March of the women, March 8, 1917
      • Women marched through the streets “Peace and Bread!”
    • Calls for a general strike
    • Soldiers join the marchers
    • Provisional Government takes control
      • Tried to carry on the war
      • Soviets sprang up – councils of workers and soldiers
Bolsheviks under the leadership of Vladimir Ulianov, 1870-1924
    • Sent back to Russia in a sealed train by the Germans
    • April Theses – Lenin’s version of a Russian socialist movement that skipped the bourgeois revolution
    • Promised “Peace, land and bread” to the people
russian revolution cont
Russian Revolution (cont)
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
    • Bolsheviks control Petrograd and Moscow soviets
    • Collapse of Provisional Government, November 6-7, 1917
    • Lenin ratifies redistribution of land and worker control of factories to gain the support of the masses
    • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918
      • Russian and German treaty
  • Civil War
    • Bolshevik (Red) army and Anti-Bolshevik (White) army
    • Murder of the Tsar and his family (July 16, 1918)
    • Disunity among the white army
    • Communists and “War communism”
      • Military prevails due to ruthless discipline and the leadership of Leon Trotsky.
      • War Communism ensures regular supplies for the Red Army
    • Invasion of allied troops (support White army)
    • 1921: Communists victory
the last year of the war
The Last Year of the War
  • Last German offensive, March 21-July 18, 1918
  • Allied counterattack, Second Battle of the Marne, July 18, 1918
    • German attack is repelled
    • Ends Germany’s final attempt to win the war
  • General Ludendorff informs German leaders that the war is lost
  • William II abdicates, November 9, 1918
  • Republic established
  • Armistice, November 11, 1918
  • The Casualties of the War
    • 8 to 9 million soldiers killed, 22 million wounded
    • 1915 – Armenians rebelled against Ottoman Empire
      • Ottoman Empire retaliated with what is known as the Armenian holocaust, killing an estimated 1 million Armenians
revolutionary upheavals in germany and austria hungary
Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • German November revolution of 1918
    • Series of mutinies & demonstrations
    • German socialists come to power
    • Division of German Socialists
      • Majority favored parliamentary democracy in route to an elimination of capitalism
      • Radicals favored an immediate social revolution
    • Formation of two governments
    • Failure of radicals to achieve control
    • Communists attempt to seize power and are brutally repressed
      • Left a fear of communism that Hitler would build upon
  • Revolution in Austria
    • Ethnic upheaval
    • Formation of independent republics based largely on ethnicity
      • Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, & Yugoslavia
the peace settlement
The Peace Settlement
  • Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied nations
  • Woodrow Wilson
    • Most important goal in the Paris Peace Conference was to assure acceptance of his Fourteen Points
  • Lloyd George (GB) was determined to make Germany pay
  • Georges Clemenceau of France concerned with his nation’s security
    • Wanted to punish Germany and make sure they could never wage war against France again
  • January 25, 1919, the principle of the League of Nations adopted but United States Senators do will not allow the US to be included
the treaty of versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
  • Five separate treaties (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire)
  • The most important was the Treaty of Versailles, June 18, 1919
    • Article 231, War Guilt Clause
    • Forced Germany to pay reparations to GB & France
    • 100,000 man army
    • Eliminate Germany’s air force
    • Restrict the size of Germany’s navy
    • Loss of Alsace and Lorraine
    • Sections of Prussia to the new Polish state
    • Germans were outraged at the “dictated peace” but they had to either accept it or go back to war where they faced defeat
the other peace treaties
The Other Peace Treaties
  • German and Russian Empires lost territory in eastern Europe
  • WWI resulted in new nation-states in Eastern Europe: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary
  • Romania acquired additional lands from Russia, Hungary, and Bulgaria
  • Compromises will lead to future problems
  • Minorities in every eastern European states
  • Ottoman Empire dismembered
    • Promises of independence of Arab states in the Middle East
    • Mandates (League of Nation term - imperialism)
      • France – Lebanon and Syria
      • Britain – Iraq and Palestine
  • United States Senate rejects the Versailles Peace Treaty
an uncertain peace search for security
An Uncertain Peace: Search for Security
  • Weaknesses of the League of Nations
    • U.S. did not join
    • Only weapon against aggression was economic sanctions
  • U.S. & G.B didn’t form defensive alliances with France
  • The French Policy of Coercion (1919 – 1924)
    • Desire for strict enforcement the Treaty of Versailles
    • France forms alliance with Little Entente (Czech, Yugoslavia, Romania)
    • Allied Reparations Commission, April 1921 $33 billion
    • Paid in annual installments of 2.5 billion gold marks
    • Germany unable to pay in 1922
    • French occupation of the Ruhr Valley
      • Chief industrial & mining center
      • German government begins printing money to pay debt
    • German mark fall to 4.2 trillion to $1, end of November 1923
The Hopeful Years (1924 – 1929)
    • Dawes Plan, 1924
      • Reduced reparations on Germany’s ability to pay
      • $200 million loan for German recovery (from U.S.)
      • Led to more investment from U.S.
    • Treaty of Locarno, 1925
      • Guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France & Belgium
      • Spirit of Locarno – viewed as the start of a new era in European peace
      • Germany is admitted into the League of Nations
      • 1924-1929 – growing spirit of optimism for a peaceful future
    • Coexistence with Soviet Union
      • Western countries established diplomatic relations with the new communist government
  • German Government under Stresemann ends passive resistance and looks to carry out provisions of the TOV
the great depression
The Great Depression
  • Problems in domestic economies
    • Loan debt, strength of unions, & trade tariffs
  • International financial crisis
    • Crash of the American stock market, October 1929
      • American investors pulled $ out of European markets to cope with losses in American Stock market
    • Downturn in domestic economies
      • Overproduction causes a drop in agricultural prices (wheat)
      • Cheaper energy sources (oil & electricity) lead to a slump in coal industry
  • Unemployment
    • Germany 40%, Britain & U.S. 25%
    • Banks failed, industrialists scaled back production
Social Repercussions
    • Women obtained menial jobs as servants & housekeepers
    • Men remained unemployed & grew resentful (opens the door for dynamic leaders to influence them)
  • Powerlessness of Governments
    • Governments became more involved in economy (end of laissez-faire)
    • Growing trend of communism
    • Overall effect of the Great Depression in Europe was a rise in authoritarian movements
the democratic states
The Democratic States
  • Great Britain
    • Labour Party failed to solve problems
    • Coalition (Liberals & Conservatives) claimed credit for prosperity
      • Got them out of the worst stages of the depression
    • John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)
      • Keynes says the government should create jobs (public works)
      • Deficit spending would create jobs and thereby increase demand for goods
    • Conservative National Bloc government led by Raymond Poincare
      • Took a hard stance against Germany (reparations & Ruhr occupation)
    • Could not solve financial problems (Poincare stabilized the economy from 1926-1929)
    • Great Depression brought political chaos
    • Popular Front (coalition of Socialists & Radicals) was formed in 1936 out of fear of extremists
      • French “New Deal” – Established 40 hour work week, collective bargaining, two week vacations, & minimum wage
      • Policies helped a little but failed to solve the problems of the Depression
The United States
    • Herbert Hoover, (1929-1933)
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt, (1933-1945)
      • New Deal
        • Provided social reforms that helped avert a possible social revolution
      • Public works projects
        • Brought partial economic recovery
      • World War II ends the depression
        • Full employment to do wartime industries
european states and the world colonial empires
European States and the World: Colonial Empires
  • Despite WWI, Europeans kept their colonial empires
  • France & G.B. even added to theirs by dividing Germany’s colonial possession
  • Political and social foundations and the self-confidence of European imperialism was undermined during the 1920s and 1930s.
  • Rising tide of unrest in Asia and Africa against imperialism
    • Increasing worker activism, rural protest, rising national fervor
The Middle East
    • Division of Ottoman Empire
      • New regimes in Turkey & Iran
      • European influence remained strong in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan & Palestine
    • Turkey
      • Colonel Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk – “Father Turk”) (1923)
      • Made a conscious effort to adopt a Westernized secular culture after WWI
  • India
    • Mohandas Gandhi (1869 – 1948)
    • Used civil disobedience against British imperialism to win self rule for India
  • Africa
    • Protest movements
    • Demands for independence from colonial rule came from Africans who were educated in Europe and the United States
retreat from democracy the authoritarian and totalitarian states
Retreat from Democracy: The Authoritarian and Totalitarian States
  • Totalitarianism
    • By 1939 only France and Great Britain are only major democratic states in Europe
    • Totalitarianism regimes in Germany, Italy, & the Soviet Union Hoped to control every aspect of their citizens’ lives
    • The modern totalitarian state
      • Active commitment of citizens
      • Mass propaganda techniques
      • High speed communication – radio, film
      • Led by single leader and single party
fascist italy
Fascist Italy
  • Impact of World War I
    • Italians angry over failure to receive territory after World War I
      • Received Trieste, wanted Fiume & Dalmatia (went to Yugoslavia)
      • Fascist movement aided by nationalistic resentment toward Italy’s treatment following WWI
  • Birth of Fascism
    • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
    • Growth of the socialist party – largest party spoke of a revolution
    • Squadristi, armed bands of Fascists who used violence to intimidate enemies
      • attacked socialist offices & newspapers
    • Fascist movement gains support from industrialists (squadristi were breaking up strikes, protecting capitalism)
    • March on Rome, 1922
      • King Victor Emmanuel made Mussolini Prime Minister
      • The next day, Mussolini’s blackshirts marched on Rome to give the illusion of a military take over
      • Italy becomes the first fascist state in Europe
mussolini and the italian fascist state
Mussolini and the Italian Fascist State
  • Fascist Government
  • All parties outlawed, 1926 – Fascist dictatorship established
  • Government censorship enforced by OVRA – secret police
  • Mussolini’s view of a Fascist state
    • Unity, values, state above all else
    • “Mussolini is always right!” – propaganda slogan
  • Young Fascists
    • Program to indoctrinate young people to fascist ideals
  • Family is the pillar of the state
    • Reinforced stereotypes about women
    • Women should stay home and make babies
  • Mussolini’s Fascist Italy never achieves the degree of totalitarianism like Germany or Soviet Union
  • Lateran Accords, February 1929
    • Established Vatican City
    • Provided Funding
    • Established Catholicism as the state religion
hitler and nazi germany
Hitler and Nazi Germany
  • Weimar Germany
    • No outstanding leaders
    • Paul von Hindenberg elected president, 1925
    • Great Depression
  • The Emergence of Adolf Hitler
    • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
    • Vienna
      • Influenced by politics & ideology (anti-semitism & German nationalism)
    • Moved to Munich & fought for Germany in WWI
  • The Rise of the Nazis
    • German Workers’ Party
      • Took control of party
      • Renamed it the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), 1921 (Nazis)
    • Sturmabteilung (SA), Storm Troops
Nazi party largest in the Reichstag after 1932 election
    • Successful in making the Nazi party appeal to all segments of German society
  • Support from right-wing elites
  • Becomes chancellor, January 30, 1933
  • Reichstag fire, February 27, 1933
  • Successes in 1933 election
  • Enabling Act, March 23, 1933
    • Amendment to the Weimar Constitution
    • Provided legal basis for Hitler’s acts
  • Gleichschaltung, coordination of all institutions under Nazi control
  • Night of the Long Knives
    • Hitler has Ernst Rohm and other SA leaders killed
  • President Paul von Hindenburg dies, August 2, 1934
the nazi state 1933 1939
The Nazi State (1933-1939)
  • Parliamentary republic dismantled
  • Mass demonstrations and spectacles to create collective fellowship
    • Nuremberg was the largest annual demonstration
  • Constant rivalry in politics gives Hitler power
  • Economics and the drop in unemployment
    • Controlled the working class through mandatory membership in Nazi-sponsored German Labor Front
    • Helped the economy by government spending rearming Germany
  • Heinrich Himmler and the SS
    • Controlled the secret police and later the death camps
    • Carried out the racial and terrorist policies of the Nazis
    • Used the SS for terror & ideology
Churches, schools, and universities brought under Nazi control
  • Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth) and Bund deutscher Mädel (League of German Maidens)
  • Influence of Nazi ideas on working women
    • Expected to be housewives and child bearers
  • Aryan Racial State
    • Nuremberg laws, September 1935
      • Separated Jews from Germans politically, socially & legally
    • Kristallnacht, November 9-10, 1938
      • Organized riots against Jewish businesses and synagogues
    • Restrictions on Jews
the soviet union
The Soviet Union
  • New Economic Policy
    • Modified form of the capitalist system (NEP)
    • Peasants and small show keepers could sell products
    • Saved economy from collapse
  • Union of Socialist Republics established, 1922
    • Revived economy
  • Lenin suffers strokes, (1922-1924)
  • Division
    • Leon Trotsky
      • Military leader
      • Goes into hiding after Stalin takes over
    • Joseph Stalin
      • General Party Secretary – appointed regional Communist positions, which aided his emergence as the leader of the Communist party
the stalinist era 1929 1939
The Stalinist Era, (1929-1939)
  • First Five Year Plan, 1928
    • Emphasis on industry
    • Real wages declined
    • Use of propaganda
  • Rapid collectivization of agriculture
    • Famine of 1932-1933; 10 million peasants died
  • Political Control
    • Stalin’s dictatorship established, 1929
    • Political purge, 1936-1938;
      • Millions of ordinary citizens arrested and sent to force labor camps in Siberia.
      • 8 million arrested, millions never returned
authoritarianism in eastern europe
Authoritarianism in Eastern Europe
  • Conservative Authoritarian Governments
    • Dominant form of government in Eastern Europe in 1920s and 1930s
  • Eastern Europe
    • Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia adopted parliamentary systems
      • Czechoslovakia is the only eastern European nation to maintain political democracy in the 1930s
    • Romania and Bulgaria gained new parliamentary constitutions
    • Greece became a republic
    • Hungary parliamentary in form; controlled by landed aristocrats
  • Problems
    • Little or no tradition of liberalism and parliamentary form
    • Rural and agrarian society
    • Ethnic conflicts
dictatorship in the iberian peninsula
Dictatorship in the Iberian Peninsula
  • General Miguel Primo de Rivera and the End of Parliamentary Government (1923)
  • The Spanish Civil War
    • The Popular Front – anti-fascist group
    • General Francisco Franco (1892 – 1975)
      • Fascist military leader
    • Foreign intervention
      • Popular Front gets supplies from Soviets
      • Franco gets supplies and military help from Germany & Italy
    • Franco emerges victorious (March 28, 1939)
      • Establishes a conservative, authoritarian, and anti-democratic regime backed by the Spanish Catholic Church
  • The Franco Regime
    • Traditional, conservative, dictatorship
  • Portugal
    • Antonio Salazar (1889 – 1970)
    • Finance Minister and leader of military group that overthrows the government
expansion of mass culture and mass leisure
Expansion of Mass Culture and Mass Leisure
  • The Roaring Twenties
    • Decade named for its exuberant culture
  • Berlin, the entertainment center of Europe
  • Josephine Baker (1906-1975)
    • American Jazz singer
    • Became the symbol for the flapper generation
  • Jazz Age
radio and movies mass forms of communication entertainment
Radio and Movies: Mass forms of Communication & Entertainment
  • Radio
    • Discovery of wireless radio waves propels radio industry
    • Nellie Melba, June 16, 1920 – 1st radio broadcast of a live concert
    • BBC, formed in 1926
  • Movies
    • Full length movies - Quo Vadis; Birth of a Nation
  • Stars became subjects of adoration
    • Marlene Dietrich
    • Popularized new images of women’s sexuality
  • Used for political purposes
    • Nazis encourage cheap radios & put speakers in the streets
    • Triumph of the Will, 1934
      • Propaganda film from Nuremberg demonstration
mass leisure
Mass Leisure
  • Sports
    • Growth of professional sports for mass audiences
  • Tourism
    • Passenger flights for the rich
    • Trains, buses and car travel for everyone else
  • Organized Mass Leisure in Italy and Germany
    • Dopolavoro in Italy – national recreation centers
      • Clubhouses with libraries, gyms, radios, theaters
      • Strengthened public support for the fascist regime
    • “Strength Through Joy” in Germany
      • Coordinated and monitored working class leisure time
      • Concerts, operas, films, tours & sporting events
      • Built public support for Nazi policies
cultural intellectual trends in the interwar years
Cultural & Intellectual Trends in the Interwar Years
  • Prewar avant-garde culture becomes acceptable
  • Provoked by a disillusionment with Western Civilization provoked by the horrors of WWI.
  • Political, economic, and social insecurities
  • Radical changes in women’s styles
    • Short skirts, short hair, makeup
  • Theodor van de Velde
    • Ideal Marriage: Its Physiology and Technique
    • Discussed birth control & glorified sex for pleasure
Nightmares and New Visions: Art and Music
    • Abstract painting; fascination with the absurd
    • Dadaism
      • Tristan Tzara (1896-1945)
      • Expressed contempt for Western culture
      • Created “anti-art” to mock traditional culture
      • Celebrated chaos & absurdity of life
      • Popular artistic movement in Weimar Germany
    • Surrealism
      • Salvador Dali (1904-1989)
      • Depicted reality beyond the conscious world
  • Functionalism in Modern Architecture
    • Bauhaus School in Germany
    • Founded by Walter Gropius
    • Known for ideas of functionalism & practicality in architecture
cultural intellectual trends cont
Cultural & Intellectual Trends (cont)
  • A Popular Audience
    • Kurt Weill, The Threepenny Opera
    • Opera aimed at a lower class audience
  • Art in Totalitarian Regimes
    • Art in service of the state – propaganda
    • Culture in Nazi Germany centered around simple art with sentimental and realistic scenes used to glorify the Aryans
literature physics between the wars
Literature & Physics Between the Wars
  • The Search for the Unconscious
    • James Joyce (1882-1941), Ulysses
      • Stream of consciousness
      • Writer presents interior monologues for characters
    • Virginia Woolf (1882-1942 writer who used inner monologue
    • Hermann Hesse (1877-1962)
      • German writer who combined Carl Jung’s psychological theories and Eastern religions
      • Focused on spiritual loneliness of modern humans
    • Impact of Freud
      • becomes more mainstream after WWI
    • Carl Jung (1856-1961)
      • Psychological theories:
      • Collective unconscious
        • shared memories with other humans
      • Process of individualization
      • Universal archetypes
        • mental forms or images
      • Importance of universal myths
The “Heroic Age of Physics”
    • Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), atom could be split
    • Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976)
      • Proposing that uncertainty was at the bottom of all physical laws.

The “Diplomatic Revolution” (1933-1937)

  • Hitler becomes chancellor, January 30, 1933
  • First dramatic act as chancellor
    • withdrew from League of Nations and Geneva Disarmament Conference
  • Repudiation of disarmament clauses of the TOV, 1935
    • Slow rearmament
  • Anglo-German Naval Pact 1935 – Germany can build a navy 35% of Britain’s & an equal number of submarines
  • Troops into the demilitarized Rhineland, March 7, 1936
    • Allies did nothing to this violation of the TOV
  • Appeasement – allied policy of giving into Hitler to avoid war
  • New Alliances
    • Rome-Berlin Axis, October 1936
    • Anti-Comintern Pact between Germany and Japan, November 1936 – maintain a common front against Communism
Hitler demands Danzig
    • British offer to protect Poland
  • Non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union, August 23, 1939
  • Invasion of Poland, September 1, 1939
    • Soviet Union invades Poland Sept. 17, 1939
  • Britain and France declare war on Germany, September 3, 1939 - Official Start of WWII
  • Unable to mobilize quick enough to help Poland
  • Poland falls in a few weeks to the combined forces of German and the Soviets
    • New military tactic of Blitzkrieg “lighting war” air attack, tank attack, infantry attack
  • After the fall of Poland, there is no fighting until the spring of 1940
    • Period called the Phony War or “sitzkrieg”
the course to world war ii
The Course to World War II
  • Britain & France pledge to back up Poland
  • Blitzkrieg (lightening war) (planes, tanks, troops)
    • Russia attacks from the other side
  • Poland divided on September 28, 1939
  • Victory and Stalemate
    • “Phony War”, winter 1939-1940
    • France built the Maginot Line, defensive structures on their eastern border, and waited for a defensive war
    • Germany resumes offensive, April 9, 1939, against Denmark and Norway
    • Attack on Netherlands, Belgium, and France, May 10, 1940
    • Evacuation of Dunkirk (330,000 troops)
    • Surrender of France, June 22, 1940
    • Vichy France
      • Marshal Henri Pétain (1856-1951)
      • Unoccupied France, but seen as a German puppet state
Battle of Britain, August-September 1940
    • Winston Churchill replaces Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister of G.B.
    • German Luftwaffe (air force) wages a massive air attack
    • British use radar and broke German codes to prepare for attacks
    • Hitler switches to bombing cities (after attack on Berlin), allowing the RAF to rebuild
    • Hitler is forced to postpone his invasion of Britain
  • German Mediterranean strategy
    • Capturing Egypt and the Suez Canal and cutting off the British oil supply from the Middle East
    • Leaves this strategy largely up to Italy, but they fail
    • Hitler sends troops to support Italy, but it is to late
  • Germany invades the Soviet Union, June 22, 1941
    • Supposed to start in the spring and finish by winter
The Course of the War (1942-1943)
    • German success in 1942 in Africa and Soviet Union
    • Allies invade North Africa, November 1942, victory in May 1943
    • Major Turning Points in the War
      • North African Campaign
      • Battle of El Alamein, Summer 1942
        • British stopped German General Rommel
        • Safeguarded the Suez Canal and oil shipments from the Middle East
        • Combined U.S. and British forces force Germans and Italian troops to surrender North Africa in 1943
the last years of the war
The Last Years of the War
  • Invasion of Sicily, 1943
  • Invasion of Italy, September 1943
  • Rome falls June 4, 1944
  • D-Day invasion of France, June 6, 1944
    • Five assault divisions landed on Normandy beaches
    • Within three months, two million men landed
    • Greatest naval invasion in history
    • Opened up 2nd Front in Europe
  • German surrender at Stalingrad, February 2, 1943
  • Tank Battle of Kursk, Soviet Union, July 5-12, 1943
    • Largest tank battle of all time– Germans defeated
    • Over 15,000 tanks combined
    • Germans are defeated
  • Russians enter Berlin, April 1945
end of the war
End of the War
  • Hitler’s suicide, April 30, 1945
  • Surrender of Germany, May 7, 1945 
  • Death of FDR, April 12, 1945
  • Difficulty of invading the Japanese homeland
  • New President Harry Truman makes decision to use the atomic bomb
    • Hiroshima Aug. 6, 1945
    • Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945
  • Surrender of Japan, August 14, 1945
  • Human losses in the war: 17 million military dead, 18 million civilians dead but may have numbered as high as 50 million dead
the holocaust
The Holocaust
  • First focused on emigration of Jews
  • The Final Solution
    • Planned Extermination of all European Jews
    • Developed by Hitler and Himmler (head of SS)
    • Reinhard Heydrich (1904-1942)
      • SS officer responsible for carrying out the final solution
    • Wannsee Conference – Jan 20, 1942
      • Established procedures for the Final Solution
    • Einsatzgrupen
      • Special strike forces used in eastern Europe that rounded up and executed Jews
    • Largest death camp was Auschwitz-Birkenau
      • Use of Zyklon B (hydrogen cyanide) and huge ovens
      • Death of 2 out of 3 European Jews
  • The Other Holocaust
    • Death of 9 - 10 million people beyond the 5 - 6 million Jews
    • 40 percent of European Gypsies
aftermath the emergence of the cold war
Aftermath: The Emergence of the Cold War
  • Chief concern at conferences was determining spheres of influence for each allied power in post-war Europe
  • The Conferences at Teheran and Yalta
    • Conference at Tehran, November 1943
      • Future course of the war, invasion of the continent for 1944
      • Agreement for the partition of postwar Germany
      • Germany was to be divided into four occupied zones after the war
    • Conference at Yalta, February 1945
      • Soviet military assistance for the war against Japan
      • Creation of a United Nations
      • German unconditional surrender
      • Free elections in Eastern Europe
  • Intensifying Differences
    • Conference at Potsdam, July 1945
    • Truman replaces FDR – learns of A-bomb
    • Truman and Stalin argue over free elections in eastern Europe
  • The Emergence of the Cold War
    • Mutual mistrust
    • Ideological conflict
confrontation of the superpowers
Confrontation of the Superpowers
  • WWII devastated the countries, cities and people of Europe, bringing about an end to European supremacy in the world.
  • The Cold War
    • The indirect conflict between the Soviet Union and the U.S. over ideologies and control of the post WWII world.
  • First Area of Conflict - Disagreement over Eastern Europe
    • United States and Britain championed self-determination and democracy
    • Soviet forces occupied all of Eastern Europe and wanted to establish pro-Soviet governments there to create a buffer zone against potential western attacks.
    • Between 1945 and 1947 Communist governments were entrenched in East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary
Truman Doctrine, March 12, 1947
    • U.S. foreign policy developed due to a civil war in Greece
    • Provided $400 million in aid to countries threatened by aggression.
    • Assistance in defense of Greece and Turkey
    • Defined America’s fear of Communist expansion
    • Pledged U.S. support to support “free peoples” and “Fight Communism anywhere, anytime”
  • Marshall Plan, June 1947, European Recovery Program
    • $13 billion for the economic recovery intended to rebuild war-torn Europe
    • Soviet view – Western European countries sold their political & economic freedom for U.S. loans. Made Stalin push for more control of Eastern bloc countries
  • The American Policy of Containment
    • Stop the spread of Communism
Contention over Germany
    • Germany is partitioned into 4 sections (so is Berlin)
    • Soviets dismantle and remove 380 factories
    • Blockade of Berlin, 1948-1949
      • Soviets cut off rail and road access through East Germany
      • Supplies were flown in to west Berlin
      • Soviets eventually back down
    • Germany separated, 1949
      • West German Federal Republic, September
      • German Democratic Republic, October
        • East Germany
  • Cold War Tension
    • Soviet Union detonates its first atomic bomb, 1949
    • Communist forces win the Civil War in China, 1949
    • Mutual deterrence – belief that an arsenal of nuclear weapons prevented war through mutually assured destruction
new military alliances
New Military Alliances
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization, (NATO) 1949
    • Western Alliance
    • Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Canada and the U.S.
    • A few years later, West Germany, Greece & Turkey joined
  • Warsaw Pact, 1955
    • Communist Alliance
    • Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union
the soviet union from stalin to khrushchev
The Soviet Union: From Stalin to Khrushchev
  • Stalin’s Policies
    • Stalin’s method for the recovery of the Soviet Union
      • Use Soviet labor to produce goods to export so Russia could bring in foreign capital to build machinery and Western technology
    • By 1947 the Soviet Union had attained pre-war levels of industrial production
      • Emphasized development of heavy industry & the production of modern weapons and space technology (Sputnik)
      • Very few consumer goods produced
    • Stalin continued his iron rule until his death in 1953
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971)
    • Ends the forced labor camps
    • Condemns Stalinist programs of forced labor and terror
    • There seem to be a loosening of restraint (destalinization)
    • Allowed more intellectual freedom
      • Allowed publication of Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s novel A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich which portrayed life in Stalin’s forced labor camps
    • Encouraged rebellion in satellite nations
      • Rebellions will be crushed by Red Army (Hungary, Czech etc)
    • Economic policies focused on production of light industry and consumer goods & increase agricultural output
      • Failed to benefit the Soviet economy and industry
    • Forced into retirement by party members in 1964
eastern europe behind the iron curtain
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain
  • In 1945 Soviet Union occupied all of the Balkans
  • Communist governments were under the control of the Soviet Union
  • Due to strong democratic traditions, Czechoslovakia was the last Eastern European nation to fall under Soviet control
  • Albania and Yugoslavia were the exceptions to total Soviet rule
    • Albania had a Stalinist type regime, but became more independent
    • Josip Broz, Tito, took control of Yugoslavia
      • Asserted Yugoslavia’s independence from the end of WWII into the 1970s.
      • Form of communism was less centralized and closer to Marxist-Leninist ideal
Eastern European countries followed the Soviet pattern
    • Five year plans
    • Farm collectivization
  • Upheaval in Eastern Europe
    • Khrushchev interferes less with the satellite countries
    • Rebellion in Poland
      • Wladyslaw Gomulka , 1956, elected first secretary
      • Poland pledged to follow its own socialist plan
      • Got nervous about a Soviet military response
      • Compromised and agreed to support the Warsaw Pact
eastern europe behind the iron curtain hungary czechoslovakia
Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain: Hungary & Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary, 1956
    • This time dissent was directed at communism as well
    • Dissatisfaction and economic problems creates tense situation
    • Imry Nagy (1896-1958) declares Hungary free, November 1, 1956
    • Promises free elections – Soviet military invades
    • Soviet military intervention reasserts Communist leadership
    • Janos Kadar (1912-1989) replaced Nagy
  • Czechoslovakia, 1968
    • Antonin Novotny (1904-1975) known as “Little Stalin”
      • Appointed by Stalin in 1952
      • Resigned in the late 1960s over protests
    • Alexander Dubcek (1921-1992), “socialism with a human face”
      • Initiated by Dubcek’s reforms – “Prague Spring”
    • Reform crushed by the Warsaw Pact – Red Army invades Czech
western europe the revival of democracy and the economy
Western Europe: The Revival of Democracy and the Economy
  • Europe recovered rapidly from World War II
  • Marshall Plan money was important to the recovery
  • France: The Domination of De Gaulle
    • Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
      • Feels he has mission to reestablish the greatness of France
      • Kept France largely independent politically
      • Wanted to make France a nuclear power
    • Defeat in Indochina
    • Algerian crisis
      • Algeria rebels against France for independence
      • Anti-war movement almost leads to French civil war
    • Fifth Republic, 1958
      • Powers of the President enhanced
    • Economic growth
    • Student riots, Labor Strikes, in 1968 over rising cost of living
    • Resignation of de Gaulle, April 1969 
western europe the revival of democracy and the economy1
Western Europe: The Revival of Democracy and the Economy
  • West Germany: A Reconceived Nation
    • Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) (Christian Democrats)
      • Founding hero of West Germany
    • Reconciliation with France
    • Resurrection of the economy (“economic miracle”)
      • New currency, free markets, low taxes
    • Payments to Holocaust survivors and Israel
  • Great Britain: The Welfare State
    • Clement Atlee (1883-1967) (Labour Party)
      • British Welfare State (social security, socialized medicine)
        • National Insurance Act and National Health Act
      • Meant dismantling of the British Empire
      • No longer viewed as a world power after loss of Suez Canal
    • Continued economic problems
      • Economy lagged behind and failed to re-industrialize
      • Lost colonies and their revenues
      • Debt from international commitments
Italy: Weak Coalition Government
    • Postwar reconstruction
    • Alcide de Gaspari (prime minister, 1948 – 1953)
    • Unstable political coalitions
      • Christian Democrats gained power with the backing of the Catholic Church
    • Italy’s “economic miracle”
      • Marshall Plan helped stabilize the economy and increase production of steel and consumer goods
the revolutionary era in the soviet union
The Revolutionary Era in the Soviet Union
  • The Brezhnev Years (1964-1982)
    • The Brezhnev Doctrine – the right of the Soviet Union to intervene if socialism was threatened in another soviet state (Soviet version of the Truman Doctrine)
      • Used in Czechoslovakia in 1968
    • Détente – period of less tensions between the Soviets and Americans
    • By the early 1980s, the Soviet Union was in poor shape
      • They were dependent on buying grain from capitalist countries
The Gorbachev Era
    • The Soviet Union under Brezhnev was stable but lacked strong leadership and reform
      • Problems of rigid and centralized planning
      • Decline in the standard of living for soviet people
    • Perestroika (restructuring) – a reordering of the economic policy to allow limited free enterprise and some private property (eventually reforms carry over into social and political spheres)
      • Creation of a new Soviet Parliament
      • Creation of a market economy with limited free enterprise and private property
Glasnost (openness) – Soviet citizens & officials were encouraged to discuss openly the strengths and weaknesses of the Soviet Union
  • 1988-1990 nationalist movements erupt in Soviet Satellite nations after Gorbachev made it clear his government would not intervene
  • Gorbachev’s policies led to new thinking about world affairs which led to arms treaties and greater independence for Eastern European nations.
  • Nov. 11, 1989 – The Fall of the Berlin Wall (Symbol of the end of the Cold War)
    • Lithuania launched a successful independence movement 1990
the end of the soviet union
The End of the Soviet Union
  • Gorbachev arrested, August 19, 1991; coup fails
    • Yeltsin gains favor by opposing the coup
  • Ukraine votes for independence, Dec. 1991, others follow
  • December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigns and turns power over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia
  • Yeltsin introduces a free market economy
    • Yeltsin is reelected to the presidency of Russia in 1996 but resigns in 1999
    • Brutal war against Chechnya undermined his support
      • Chechnya wanted to break away and be independent
Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin when he resigned
    • In 2001 launches reforms including
      • unrestricted sale and purchase of land
      • Trying to end organized crime
      • Vows to return breakaway state of Chechnya
      • Economic reforms
    • Reform did not resolve Russia’s economic problems
      • An estimated 40% of the people live in poverty
The Reunification of Germany
    • East German leader Erich Honecker established a dictatorship by using the Stasi or secret police during the 1970s & 1980s.
    • Unrest due to economic problems in the 1980s
    • Communist government falls, November 1989
    • Berlin Wall comes down in November 1989
      • Symbolic ending of the Cold War
    • Politically unified, October 3, 1990
      • Reunification of Germany was accomplished through the leadership of Helmut Kohl.
the disintegration of yugoslavia
The Disintegration of Yugoslavia
  • Death of Tito in 1980
  • League of Communists ruled until their collapse at the end of the 1980s under the wave of reform movements
  • Yugoslavia was divided into warring factions over demands for ethnic separation
  • Slbodan Milosevic, the former leader of the Serbian communist party managed to stay in power by supporting Serbian nationalism
  • Milosevic rejects these efforts without new border arrangements to accommodate Serb minorities living outside of their borders
Slovenia and Croatia declare independence
    • Yugoslavian army sent to attach Croatia
    • Army becoming more and more a Serbian Army
  • 1992 Serbs turn on Bosnia-Herzegovina
    • Milosevic’s government controlled the Yugoslavian army – attacked Croatia
    • Ethnic cleansing – Serbians killed or removed Bosnian Muslims from their lands
    • NATO strikes back against Serbia
war in kosovo
War in Kosovo
  • Kosovo had been made an autonomous province of Yugoslavia in 1974
  • Ethnic Albanians and a minority of Serbians
  • War erupted in 1999
  • Kosovo Liberation Army founded by ethnic Albanians
  • Serbian forces began to massacre ethnic Albanians in an effort to crush the KLA
  • US and NATO intervene
  • Yugoslavian President Milosovic ousted from office in fall elections, 2000
    • Brought to trial by an international tribunal for war crimes against humanity
    • Dies in prison
great britain thatcher and thatcherism
Great Britain: Thatcher and Thatcherism
  • Problems in England
    • Problems of Northern Ireland – fighting between Catholics and Protestants
    • Direct rule from London, 1972 – Irish Republican Army lead terrorist attacks against England, example of nationalist terrorism
    • British industry was hampered by labor strikes
  • Politics Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (Thatcherism)
    • Broke power of the labor unions & weakened the Labour Party
    • Thatcherism – used strict measures to control inflation
    • Serous cutbacks to education funding.
    • Military buildup and hard line against communism
    • Popular military victory against Argentina in Falklands War
    • Attempted to replace property taxes with a flat rate tax
    • Anti-tax riots force Thatcher to resign, November 1990
  • Tony Blair - Labour Party, became Prime Minister in 1997
    • Popularity plummets over support of U.S. invasion of Iraq
confusion in italy
Confusion in Italy
  • Coalition Politics
  • Eurocommunism – an attempt to broaden support for communism by dropping Marxist ideology
  • Economic recession in the 1970s, economic growth in the 1980s
  • Political Corruption
    • Use of political bribes to secure public contracts
  • Social problems
    • Red Brigade
    • Political terrorist organization that kidnap which kidnapped children of prominent officials to coerce the government
the unification of europe
The Unification of Europe
  • 1973: European Economic Community (EEC) becomes European Community (EC) when Great Britain, Ireland, and Denmark join
  • 1992 – Maastricht Treaty (formally known as the Treaty of the European Union)
  • 1994: EC renames itself European Union (EU) and focuses on political unification
    • Committed states of the European Community to an economic and monetary union
  • 2002: Introduction of common currency (euro)
  • Problems in the 21st Century
    • Many Europeans remain committed to a national identity and don’t identify themselves as “Europeans.”
  • Toward a United Europe: May 2004: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Cyprus join EU
the end of the cold war
The End of the Cold War
  • During the late 1980s, US and Soviet Union move to slow down arms race
  • 1989-1990: Political upheaval in Eastern Europe upset postwar status quo
  • 1991 – Breakup of the Soviet Union