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Evan Smith 2 nd Period AP European History

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  1. Switzerland Evan Smith 2nd Period AP European History http://www.worldofstock.com/slides/TES1540.jpg 1

  2. Table of Contents 1 Title Slide 2 Table of Contents 3 Cantons and Notable Cities 4 Language Distribution 5 Reformation in SUI 6 Intercantonal Religious Wars 7 30 Years’ War 8 Treaty of Westphalia 1653 Peasants’ Revolts 10 Aftermath of Revolts 11 Battles of Villmergen 12 Napoleonic Invasion and Results 13 Congress of Vienna 14 Liberal Takeover and Sonderbund 15 Federal Constitution World War I World War I (continued) 18 Swiss Preparation (WWII) 19 Contemplated German Invasion 20 Swiss Relations with Nazi Germany 21 Property of Holocaust Victims 22 Council of Europe 23 Jura Secession 24 Jewish and Women’s Liberation 25 UN, Schengen Treaty, EU 26 Democracy, Conscription, Federalism 27 Economy 28 Citations 29 Citations 2

  3. Cantons and Notable Cities http://www.jmem.ch/base/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/SwissMapKantone.jpg The capital of Switzerland is Bern. However, the largest city by population is Zurich, followed by Geneva and Basel. The east is mountainous and tends to be rural, with the rest of the country rather urban. Culture is highly influenced by the nearest bordering country (for example, the south resembles Italy in many ways). 3

  4. Language Distribution The majority of Switzerland speaks German as their primary language. However, Italian and French are largely spoken in the areas close to the language’s country of origin. An interesting facet of Swiss culture is the survival of Romansh, a local language. It is slowing dying out with the incorporation of German, but it lives on in isolated regions of the east. All four of these languages are official languages of Switzerland. Red: German Purple: French Green: Italian Yellow: Romansh Picture: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/08/Switzerland_Linguistic_EN.png/1280px-Switzerland_Linguistic_EN.png 4

  5. Protestant Reformation in SUI Protestantism did not really catch on in Switzerland until Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531). Zwingli studied the classics in universities in Austria, and at Basel and Bern. Strongly influenced by Martin Luther, Zwingli denounced indulgences and pilgrimages, and supported allowing clerics to marry. He was a product of the humanism of his era, especially Desiderius Erasmus. He died defending his religious “base”, Zurich, from a Catholic attack. John Calvin (1509-1564) was the next religious reformer to have an impact on Switzerland. He forged a middle ground between Luther and Zwingli. He also had a strong belief in predestination. Starting out in France (with his converts called French Huguenots), he was forced to flee to Switzerland. He established a following in Geneva, and made Geneva a city run by the Calvinist model. Ulrich Zwingli http://www.nndb.com/people/504/000094222/zwingli-1-sized.jpg 5

  6. Intercantonal Religious Wars Also known as the Wars of Kappel, these religious wars within Switzerland occurred in 1529 and 1531. As the Reformed Christian religions started gaining a following in some Swiss cantons, the cantons started suppressing the opposing religion. The non-established church’s followers were legally considered outlaws. This volatile situation led to two brief conflicts over religion. The Second War of Kappel ended in Catholic victory. The peace agreement allowed cantons already declared as Protestant to remain Protestant (with a few strategic exceptions), but established Catholic dominance over Swiss life. The Second War of Kappel http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/80/Schlacht_bei_Kappel.jpg 6

  7. 30 Years’ War While much of Europe was waging war from 1618 to 1648, Switzerland was operating under peaceful conditions. It never involved itself in this conflict. The chief reason for the other nations allowing this neutrality was their need for Swiss mercenaries. Plus, Switzerland was already gaining a reputation for non-involvement in European conflicts. At the time, the Old Swiss Confederation was a loose association of cantons with little political power, so there was no political advantage to be gained from involving the confederation. A painting depicting an event of the 30 Years War http://www.principiadialectica.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Wallenstein-A-Scene-of-the-Thirty-Years-War-xx-Ernest-Crofts.jpg 7

  8. Treaty of Westphalia While Switzerland was not intimately involved in the Thirty Years War, it was impacted the treaty that ended. In 1648, a peace treaty was signed by the belligerents, and this moment has been referred to as the Peace of Westphalia. The Treaty of Westphalia was partly an attack on the deteriorating Holy Roman Empire. The settlement formally recognized what had been known for quite some time: Switzerland was an independent country. The Holy Roman Empire had claimed that Switzerland was a territory of the Empire. Now, the Swiss Confederation was formally a legitimate political power. The delegates at the peace settlement, later known as the Treaty (or Peace) of Westphalia http://wp.patheos.com.s3.amazonaws.com/blogs/scriptorium/files/2009/10/Peace-of-Westphalia.jpg 8

  9. 1653 Peasants’ Revolts In 1653, Swiss peasants, mostly in the regions in and around Bern, revolted. The cause of the conflict was mostly the devaluation of the Bernese currency. The peasants demanded reforms; however, these suggestions were not followed. The peasants decided to use force to achieve their ends, and became a much broader political entity. After forming an official alliance, a large number of peasants sieged Bern and Lucerne. They negotiated a compromise deal. The Swiss Confederacy authorities soon made the deal null and void, and put down remaining rebellion. The leaders were captured and executed. http://pages.uoregon.edu/dluebke/301ModernEurope/Executions_Basel_1653.jpg 9

  10. http://images.gadmin.st.s3.amazonaws.com/n64477/images/buehne/bauernaufstand-1.jpghttp://images.gadmin.st.s3.amazonaws.com/n64477/images/buehne/bauernaufstand-1.jpg Aftermath of Revolts The revolt will rarely appear in mainstream historical discussion. However, it was vastly important for many reasons. Although the leaders did brutally suppress the rebellious sentiment, it established a precedent. Swiss political leaders now knew how important the rural population was to their success. Peasants showed that they could organize and change the political situation. This “consent of the governed” mindset greatly contributed to the absence of absolutism in Swiss politics. Also, tax and currency reforms were put in place in the next century, thus satisfying the rural population. 10

  11. Battles of Villmergen (1656 and 1712) The Second Battle of Villmergen (1712) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flucht_der_Innerschweizer_bei_Villmergen_1712.jpg The Battles of Villmergen were mostly a result of cantonal disparities in religious policy. The Confederation remained deeply divided over religion, with some cantons advocating Catholicism and some advocating the Protestant faith. The canton of Schwyz stayed Catholic. The authorities killed many Protestants, and confiscated the property of those who fled to less hostile cantons. Bern and Zurich allied to fight oppression by the Catholic cantons. There was also bitterness over the alleged underrepresentation in the national legislature, since Catholic cantons outnumbered Protestant cantons but Protestant cantons had more wealth and people. The Protestant side won after the second battle, and these cantons were given more favorable status within the Confederation, in the Peace of Aurau. 11

  12. Napoleonic Invasion and Results In 1798, revolutionary France, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, invaded Switzerland. It was named the Helvetic Republic by the French. As a satellite state, strong centralization was imposed on the Swiss people. A new constitution was also forced on the Swiss. In essence, the cantons served no political purpose anymore. When other European powers occupied Switzerland to oppose Napoleonic France in the first decade of the nineteenth century, the Swiss people refused to fight on the side of France. Thereafter, the French informally adopted a “hands-off” approach to their newfound Helvetic Republic. http://www.theotherside.co.uk/tm-heritage/images/map-nap-war1812.gif 12

  13. Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was a recognition of the horrors of war and of the value of stability. It brought the boundaries of France back to its pre-Napoleonic days. This peace settlement of 1815 also greatly benefited Swiss sovereignty. It reestablished the legal status of Switzerland as an independent state. However, it also reaffirmed the well-known characteristic of Swiss neutrality. Switzerland was now formally given the recognition of legal neutrality. Also, a few cantons were given to the country, thus forming the boundaries of Switzerland that exist today. Congress of Vienna deliberations http://www.old-print.com/mas_assets/full2/P1280856/P1280856361.jpg 13

  14. Liberal Takeover and Sonderbund In the late 1840’s, liberal-minded people were making up more and more of the national legislature’s representation. In response, seven Catholic cantons formed an alliance known as the Sonderbund. These seven cantons were Uri, Schwyz, Hidwalden, Zug, Luzern, Fribourg, and Wallis, as shown by the map. These conservative cantons attempted secession, and a civil war erupted. Overall, the war lasted less than a month and less than a hundred died. The liberal cantons’ alliance prevailed, and secession was suppressed. http://www.zum.de/whkmla/histatlas/italy/sonderbund.gif 14

  15. Federal Constitution http://www.eppgroup.eu/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/photo/2014/02/swiss-referendum.jpg?itok=g3BYpRS1 The civil war may have been short, but the Swiss people learned many lessons from the intra-national fighting. They learned that Switzerland would be better off economically and politically with more unity on the federal level. In 1848, a constitution calling for a federal system of governance was forged. A number of liberal reforms were addressed, as detailed in assurances of the continuance of civil liberties and a more centralized government. Inspired by the American model, the constitution divided powers between the federal government and the cantons, while giving the federal government more power. The representative democracy would have an upper and lower house as well. Also, modifications to the constitution had to come from referenda. A solid tradition of direct democracy was indeed strengthened on this occasion. The new constitution helped assure that the civil war would be the last armed conflict in Swiss territory. In 1874, a new constitution was adopted, furthering the cause. 15

  16. World War I From 1914 to 1918, the major countries of Europe once again entered into major armed conflict with one another. Due to historical precedent and cultural pride, Switzerland did not join the conflict at any point in its four-year duration. Strict neutrality was uphold. This was a remarkable feat, considering the geographical positioning of the country. As shown in the map to the left, Switzerland was surrounded by belligerent nations. This is an eerie situation of what was to come in the next thirty years. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/pathways/firstworldwar/maps/map_images/Europe1914.gif 16

  17. World War I (continued) In fact, trench warfare existed on the western front up until the border of Switzerland. However, there was a close call with the Grimm-Hoffmann Affair. Robert Grimm, a socialist Swiss politician, went to Russia right after their revolution to negotiate a peace treaty between Russia and the Central Powers. He did this to help the new socialist system survive from infancy. He was forced to go back to Switzerland by the Allies when they found out, and a high-level advocate of Grimm’s actions, Arthur Hoffmann, had to resign. Trench warfare during World War I, known as the Great War at the time. http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/external/worldwar1somme-tl.jpg 17

  18. Swiss Preparation (WWII) 435,000 Swiss citizens were mobilized for defensive warfare, starting in 1939. Switzerland was perhaps the most capable neutral country, when it came to defense from surrounding aggressors. The Swiss developed a wide network of defensive structures, known as reduitsuisse, which helped ward off a possible German invasion. Also, bridges into major cities were equipped with bombs under them, in order to impede Axis invasion. Citizens were instructed to fight against the invaders, even if an official surrender had been issued. These actions were coordinated largely by General Henri Guisan. A relic of Swiss reduit (defensive structures deep in the Alps) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c7/Forte_Airolo_Schweiz.jpg 18

  19. Contemplated German Invasion (WWII) Nazi Germany made serious plans to invade Switzerland, mostly for tactical reasons. However, these plans were not followed through because an invasion would have been so costly, especially where German soldiers’ lives were concerned. Under Operation Tannenbaum, theoretical plans to invade Switzerland were made. The National Socialist (Nazi) Party in Germany only had negative comments regarding Switzerland, attributing its political system to French sources. http://automaticballpoint.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/invasion-plan-4-10-1940.jpg Operation Tannenbaum 19

  20. Swiss Relations with Nazi Germany As it was in World War I, Switzerland was surrounded by warring nations in World War II. However, in World War II, it was surrounded by fascist countries. How did it stay neutral, especially with such a large German population? Again, history and culture are the largest influences. For survival, Switzerland had to make economic concessions to Nazi Germany, but in the end that contribution was only 0.5% of the German war effort. In general, the Swiss people resented the threat of German invasion and did not favor unification with any of the aggressor nations. Switzerland gave asylum to hundreds of thousands of refugees, but did send back at least tens of thousands due to its stringent laws regarding immigration. http://www.mapsofworld.com/world-maps/image/world-war-2.jpg 20

  21. Due to Swiss efforts to stay neutral, much of the property stolen from the victims of the Holocaust by the Germans was deposited in Swiss banks. Since Swiss banks have a history of strict secrecy, returning the stolen property to the victims and their families has been difficult. In a recent settlement, $1.3 billion dollars has been returned to victims’ families by Swiss banks. It can rightly be said that this kind of behavior can be a negative consequence of neutrality in regional and world affairs, especially when the country is under threat of attack, as Switzerland was. 21 Property of Holocaust Victims http://www.swissbankclaims.com/images/header.jpg

  22. Council of Europe In 1963, Switzerland joined the Council of Europe. As a traditionally isolationist people, this move was a big step towards integration into the European community. The Council of Europe sought (and still seeks) to promote homogeneity in its members when it comes to human rights, the rule of law, and democracy. Since Switzerland met all of the requirements for membership, it was allowed entry into the organization devoted to these modern political ideals. http://www.coe.int/org-coe-theme/images/LogoCoe.png 22

  23. Jura Secession Jura seceded from the canton of Bern in 1979, to form a new canton within Switzerland. The Swiss people approved of the measure in a referendum, after the canton of Bern gave them the right to self-determination. This is an interesting development, considering recent trends towards national and even slight European unity. The region is French-speaking and feels linguistically isolated from the German-speaking Bernese. However, some southern parts of the Jura region opted to stay with Bern, probably for financial reasons. This is a test-case for modern European devolution, as also witnessed in Scotland and Catalonia, Spain. Emblem of Jura http://images.vector-images.com/149/Ch_11_ju.gif 23

  24. Jewish and Women’s Liberation Jews were given full rights in Switzerland in 1879. Although the Swiss tend to have a splendid reputation for respecting rights, the country was very late (comparatively) in adopting women’s suffrage. Women’s suffrage was first legalized by individual cantons in 1959. It wasn’t until the last decade of the twentieth century that women’s suffrage was instituted nationwide. This was achieved at the national level to change the policy of the last canton, Appenzell. Despite this piece of information, the Swiss were the first to offer women admission to medical universities in Europe. http://www.swissinfo.ch/media/cms/images/null/2008/10/sriimg20081020_9870632_0.jpg 24

  25. UN, Schengen Treaty, EU In 2002, Switzerland joined the United Nations (UN) by popular vote (the only nation to enter the UN by popular vote). This very late entry is due to classic Swiss isolationist sentiment. In 2005, a popular vote entered Switzerland into the Schengen Treaty. This European agreement obliges easy transportation across borders between signatories of the treaty, and eliminates some barriers to trade. However, Switzerland has voted many times to stay out of the European Union (EU). It maintains its own currency (the Swiss franc), and a majority of Swiss citizens believe that membership in the EU would interfere too much with Swiss sovereignty and independence. http://europa.eu/about-eu/basic-information/symbols/images/flag_yellow_low.jpg http://www.thelibertybeacon.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/un.png 25

  26. http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/70056000/jpg/_70056417_abf54194-630e-4f9a-bb86-7f39dae0fabf.jpghttp://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/70056000/jpg/_70056417_abf54194-630e-4f9a-bb86-7f39dae0fabf.jpg 26 Democracy, Conscription, Federalism Since the Swiss Constitution of 1848, Switzerland has operated under many aspects of direct democracy. Referenda are extremely important facets of Swiss political life. Switzerland has a conscription service. All Swiss males aged 18-21 must apply for military service, but it is optional for women. The Swiss have affirmed the practice in many nationwide votes, and they see it as a way to keep Switzerland neutral yet well-armed. Switzerland also has a strong tradition of letting cantons have a lot of power. Most issues are decided at the local level.

  27. The Swiss economy is highly industrialized; therefore, it specializes highly in industry and services. Famous products which are uniquely Swiss include watches, pocket knifes, cheese, and chocolate, just to name a few. Its per capita income is $46,000 (15th best in the world), and its economy is very stable compared to other major economic powers. The banks in Switzerland are both famous and infamous. They offer, essentially, a vault system, where one can store money and other valuables. However, they have been accused of helping tax evasion and criminal activity, especially for the wealthy in the world. The Swiss love scenic venues, though, so they highly subsidize agriculture in the rural locales. Economy http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wtOZM9AOIkw/T6KinVNqzwI/AAAAAAAAAC4/991R79YT5UI/s1600/swiss_watches.jpg 27

  28. Citations Dendinger, Roger. "Switzerland: People." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Blackwell, Amy. "Reformation." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. "Switzerland: History." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. Niklaus Flüeler and Roland Gfeller-Corthésy, ed. (1975), Die Schweiz vom Bau der Alpen bis zur Frage nach der Zukunft, Luzern: C. J. Bucher AG, pp. 67–71 "Swiss Constitution (1874)." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. "Holocaust Victims Paid Back by Swiss Banks." - The Local. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.  "World Economic Forum – Global Competitiveness Report". Weforum.org. "Switzerland: Contemporary Issues." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. "CIA World Factbook - The Best Country Factbook Available Online." Switzerland. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. "History of Switzerland." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Mar. 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. 28

  29. Citations "World Economic Forum – Global Competitiveness Report". Weforum.org. "Switzerland: Contemporary Issues." World Geography: Understanding a Changing World. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2014. "CIA World Factbook - The Best Country Factbook Available Online." Switzerland. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Mar. 2014. "History of Switzerland." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Mar. 2014. Web. 22 Mar. 2014.