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Storage of Semantic Information. Storage of Episodic Information. Schema Theory (Shank, 1975) - embodies Bartlett’s (1932) notion of effort after meaning and emphasises the role of past experience and expectation. Connectionist approach (Collins & Quillian, 1969)

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storage of semantic information
Storage of Semantic Information

Storage of Episodic Information

  • Schema Theory (Shank, 1975)
  • - embodies Bartlett’s (1932) notion of effort after meaning and emphasises the role of past experience and expectation.
  • Connectionist approach (Collins & Quillian, 1969)
  • operational version of Bower’s (1967) Multiple Trace Theory emphasising a network of associations

examples

schema theory what is a schema
Schema Theory What is a Schema?

“A mental model or representation built up through experience about a person, an object, a situation, or an event.” (Head, 1920)

“Organised structures that capture knowledge and expectations of some aspect of the world.” (Bartlett, 1932)

excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 1932
Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)
  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.
  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.
  • Many of our fellows were killed,
  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.
  • And they said I was hit
  • And I did not feel sick.”
  • He told it all,
  • And they be became quiet.
  • When the sun rose, he fell down.
  • Something black came out of his mouth.
  • His face became contorted.
  • The people jumped up and cried.
  • He was dead.
excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19324
Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)
  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.
  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.
  • Many of our fellows were killed,
  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.
  • And they said I was hit
  • And I did not feel sick.”
  • He told it all,
  • And they be became quiet.
  • When the sun rose, he fell down.
  • Something black came out of his mouth.
  • His face became contorted.
  • The people jumped up and cried.
  • He was dead.
excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19325
Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)
  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.
  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.
  • Many of our fellows were killed,
  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.
  • And they said I was hit
  • And I did not feel sick.”
  • He told it all,
  • And they be became quiet.
  • When the sun rose, he fell down.
  • Something black came out of his mouth.
  • His face became contorted.
  • The people jumped up and cried.
  • He was dead.
excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19326
Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)
  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.
  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.
  • Many of our fellows were killed,
  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.
  • And they said I was hit
  • And I did not feel sick.”
  • He told it all,
  • And they be became quiet.
  • When the sun rose, he fell down.
  • Something black came out of his mouth.
  • His face became contorted.
  • The people jumped up and cried.
  • He was dead.
excerpt from war of the ghosts bartlett 19327
Excerpt from ‘War of the Ghosts’(Bartlett, 1932)
  • … and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire.
  • And he told everybody and said, “Behold, I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to a fight.
  • Many of our fellows were killed,
  • And many of those who attacked us were killed.
  • And they said I was hit
  • And I did not feel sick.”
  • He told it all,
  • And they be became quiet.
  • When the sun rose, he fell down.
  • Something black came out of his mouth.
  • His face became contorted.
  • The people jumped up and cried.
  • He was dead.
the structure of schemata
The Structure of Schemata
  • Core Variables
  • - Things that define the event
  • Other Variables
  • - Things that can vary from one experience of the event to another
  • Sequence and Slots
  • Default Variables
  • - Based on prior experience and expectations.

stories

the importance of schema activation
The Importance of Schema-Activation

Bransford & Johnson (1972) Expt 2: Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 717-726.

stories

advantages of the schema
Advantages of the Schema
  • Guides attention, selection, encoding and retrieval of information
  • Helps integrate current information with past information
  • Helps interpret and understand event through insertion of default variables
  • Helps retrieval by recall being schema-driven.

errors

limitations of the schema model
Limitations of the Schema Model
  • Definition of Schema
    • How can a schema be defined without circularity of argument?
  • Schema Selection and Retrieval
  • -How is the most appropriate schema selected and retrieved? Have we not merely re-stated the question of how LTM is organised and recalled?
  • Contrary Evidence
  • - How can we explain the instances of vivid recall of schema- inconsistent details or events?
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