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Semantic Web 2.0: Creating Social Semantic Information Spaces

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  1. Semantic Web 2.0:Creating Social Semantic Information Spaces 報告者: 黃薰慧 日期: 2007/04/18

  2. Outline • What is the Semantic Web? • What is Web 2.0? • The path to Semantic Web 2.0 • Social semantic information spaces: SW 2.0 • From Blogging to Semantic Blogging • From Wikis to Semantic Wikis • Semantic Search • Semantics in Digital Libraries • Semantics in Community Portals • From the Desktop and Web to Social Semantic Information Spaces • Conclusion

  3. What is the Semantic Web? • “An extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” • Sir Tim Berners-Lee et al., Scientific American, 2001: • “…allowing the Web to reach its full potential…” with far-reaching consequences • “The next generation of the Web”

  4. The current (syntactic / structural) Web

  5. Was the Web meant to be more?

  6. Hence, the Semantic Web… • The word “semantic” stands for “the meaning of”: • The Beatles were a popular band from Liverpool; Lennon was a member of the Beatles; "Hey Jude" was recorded by the Beatles. • The Semantic Web is a Web that is able to describe things in a way that computers can understand.

  7. Describing things on the Semantic Web • RDF(Resource Description Framework) is an open formatmarkup language for describing information and resources, and is the fundamental data modelfor the Semantic Web. • Using RDF, we can describe relationships between things like: • A is a part of B or • Y is a member of Z • and their properties (size, weight, age, price…) in a machine-understandable format where each thing has a URI.

  8. A simple RDF example • Statement: • “Ora Lassila is the creator of the resource (web page)” • Structure: • Resource (subject) • Property (predicate) • Value (object) “Ora Lassila” • Directed graph:

  9. Simple RDF example shown in RDF/XML <rdf:Description about=“”> <Creator>OraLassila</Creator> </rdf:Description>

  10. Can already describe lots of things semantically • Geographic coordinates: • – GEO • Library books: • – Dublin Core (DC) • Online discussions: • – SIOC • People, social networks: • – Friend-of-a-Friend (FOAF) • Maybe even hormones! • – GeneOnt

  11. The power of the Semantic Web • Interoperability and increased connectivity is possible through a commonality of expression • Vocabularies can be combined and used together: • e.g. a description of a book using Dublin Core metadata can be augmented with specifics about the book author using the Friend-of-a-Friend vocabulary • Vocabularies can be easily extended(modules, etc.) • Intelligent searchwith more granularity and relevance: • e.g. a search can be personalised to an individual by making use of their identity and relationship information

  12. What is Web 2.0? • The term Web 2.0 was made popular by Tim O’Reilly: • • • “Web 2.0 … has … come to refer to what some people describe as a second phase of architecture and application development for the World Wide Web.” • The Web where “ordinary” users can meet, collaborate, and share using social softwareapplications on the Web (tagged content, social bookmarking, AJAX, etc.) • Popular examples include: • Bebo,, digg, Flickr, Google Maps, Skype, Technorati, Wikipedia…

  13. The path to Semantic Web 2.0 • The Semantic Web effort is mainly towards producing standards and recommendations that will interlink applications. • The Web 2.0 meme is about providing user applications. • Not mutually exclusive: • • With a little effort, many Web 2.0 applications can and do use Semantic Web technologies to get great benefit • We will now discuss Web 2.0 and describe what happens when we combine it with the Semantic Web.

  14. From Web 1.0 to Semantic Web 2.0

  15. Metawebsocial semantic information spaces

  16. 1+1>2 • Semantic forums • Semantic blogs • Semantic wikis • Semantic social nets • Semantic desktop Semantic Web + social software > sum of its parts

  17. Social semantic information spaces: SW 2.0

  18. What are blogs? • Weblog, web logor simply a blog • A blog is a user-generated website where entries are made in journal style and displayed in a reverse chronological order. • A web application which contains periodic time-stamped posts on a common (usually open-access) webpage • Individual diaries -> arms of political campaigns, media programs and corporations (e.g. the Google Blog) • Comments can be made by the public on some blogs • Latest headlines, with hyperlinks and summaries, are syndicated using RSS or Atom formats (e.g. for reading favorite blogs with a feed aggregrator or reader)

  19. The state of the “blogosphere”

  20. Why semantic blogging? • Users collect and create large amounts of structured dataon their desktops. • This data is oftentiedto specific applications and lockedwithin the user's computer. • Semantic blogging can lift this datainto the Web.

  21. Releasing your data to the Web scenario

  22. Creating a semantic blog post with semiBlog

  23. What are wikis? • A community-developed documentation project • A wiki is a website that allows the visitors themselves to easily add, remove, and otherwise edit and change available content, and typically without the need for registration. • “A piece of server software that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content using any Web browser. Wiki supports hyperlinks and has a simple text syntax for creating new pages and crosslinks between internal pages on the fly.” • Wiki comes from the Hawaiian word for quick • In brief: • Interlinked websites • Collaborative authoring • Simple syntax • e.g.

  24. Some uses of wikis Wikis are being used for: • online encyclopaedias • free dictionaries • book repositories • event organisation • software development • writing research papers • project proposals • personal info management

  25. Entering information • Anyone can edit an existing wiki article • If an article does not exist on a particular topic, you can create it. • If someone messes up an article (deliberately or erroneously), there is a revision history so you can revert the contents

  26. Problems with traditional wikis • Structured access • Information reuse

  27. What are semantic wikis? • Semantic wikis (with an underlying model of the knowledge) allow us to capture or identify further information about the pages (metadata) and their relations. • Knowledge model is available in a formal language, so that machines can (at least partially) process and reason on it. • A semantic wiki would be able to capture that an "apple“ article is a "fruit" (through an inheritance relationship) and present you with further fruits when you look at apple. • Some are used for personal knowledge management, others aimed at KM for communities.

  28. Towards a semantic websearch engine • Currently, Google searches mainly plain text • Need integrated, conceptual query answering over various sources and kinds of data: • semi-structured data (RDF, actual SW data) • unstructured data (i.e. human language text) • structured data (i.e. databases) • Goal to provide answers instead of document lists (or both)

  29. SWSE • “Semantic Web Search Engine” • When you search for something, you can specify what type of “something” it is that you are looking for, e.g.: • Person • Event • Image • Wikipedia article • etc.

  30. Semanticdigital library technologies and research • JeromeDL – e-library with semantics • A digital library based on the Semantic Web • Conforms to librarian standards (like MARC21) • Semantic query expansion and ontology based navigation • FOAFRealm – identity management • Can define polices based on social networking information • Access rights delegation, social semantic collaborative filtering • MarcOnt – semantic bibliographic description initiative • Bibliographic ontology compatible with MARC21, BibTeX, DC • MarcOnt portal for collaborative ontology lifecycle management • MarcOnt ontology mediation service • HyperCuP - lightweight peer to peer implementation • Efficient broadcast algorithm • Domain-based overlay networks

  31. Evolution of online community sites • Online community sites: • Provide a valuable source of information • May contain rich meta-information • But are isolated from one another: • Many sites discussing complementary topics • Next steps: • Connect sites together • Add more value: • Let other sites know more about the structure and contents • Make more use of tagging and semantic metadata

  32. What is SIOC? • Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC) • Connecting forums, posts from many types of online communities (blogs, forums, mailing lists, etc.) • Interesting possibilities: • Distributed linked conversations • Decentralised discussion channels and communities • “It just dawned on me that the burgeoning SIOC-o-sphere (online communities exporting and exposing content via SIOC Ontology) is actually: Blogosphere 2.0” – Kingsley Idehen, Founder and CEO of OpenLink Software.

  33. • SIOC provides methods for interconnecting discussion methods such as blogs, forums and mailing lists to each other. • It consists of the SIOC ontology, an open-standard machine readable format for expressing the information contained both explicitly and implicitly in internet discussion methods, of SIOC metadata producers for a number of popular blogging platforms and content management systems, and of storage and browsing / searching systems for leveraging this SIOC data.

  34. Creating Connections Between Discussion Clouds with SIOC

  35. Here's SIOC acting as middleware. Providing a unified vocabulary for content and interaction description: a semantic layer that can co-exist with existing discussion platforms.

  36. Virtual Forums These may be a gathering of posts or threads which are distributed across discussion platforms, for example, where a user has found posts from a number of blogs that can be associated with a particular category of interest, or an agent identifies relevant posts across a certain timeframe.

  37. Unified Communities • Apart from creating a web page with a number of relevant links to the blogs or forums or people involved in a particular community, there is no standard way to define what makes up an online community (apart from grouping the people who are members of that community using FOAF or OPML). • FOAF (Friend of a Friend) is a project for machine-readable modelling of homepage-like profiles and social networks. • OPML (Outline Processor Markup Language) is an XML format for outlines. • SIOC allows one to simply define what objects are constituent parts of a community, or to say to what community an object belongs (using sioc:has_part / part_of): users, groups, forums, blogs, etc.

  38. Distributed Conversations • Trackbacks are commonly used to link blog posts to previous posts on a related topic. • By creating links in both directions, not only across blogs but across all types of internet discussions, conversations can be followed regardless of what point or URI fragment a browser enters at.

  39. One Person, Many User Accounts • SIOC also aims to help the issue of multiple identities by allowing users to define that they hold other accounts or that their accounts belong to a particular personal identity (via foaf:holdsOnlineAccount or sioc:account_of). • Therefore, all the posts or comments made by a particular person using their various associated user accounts across platforms could be identified.

  40. Shared Topics • Technorati (a search engine for blogs) and BoardTracker (for bulletin boards) have been leveraging the free-text tags that people associate with their posts for some time now. • SIOC allows the definition of such tags (using the subject property), but also enables hierarchial or non-hierarchial topic definition of posts using sioc:topic when a topic is ambiguous or more information on a topic is required. Combining with other Semantic Web vocabularies, tags and topics can be further described using the SKOS organisation system.

  41. The main concepts in SIOC

  42. How can SIOC data be used?

  43. Realising social semantic information spaces

  44. Motivation for social semantic information spaces • Current problems: • Low level communication, everything is just e-mail... • Insufficient collaboration infrastructure: • High cost of setting up / maintaining • Difficult to support ad-hoc collaboration

  45. Conclusion Semantic (Web 2.0) => (Semantic Web) 2.0 (or Web 3.0)