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1. Nuremberg War trials: an international tribunal representing 23 nations tried Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, Germany; eventually nearly 200 Nazis were found guilty of war crimes; for the first time in history, a nation’s leaders had been held legally responsible for their actions during wartime.
2. the occupation of Japan: U.S. occupied Japan for 6 years under Gen. Douglas MacArthur; officials arrests and put on trial; reformed the Japanese economy by introducing free market practices; introduced a new constitution including women’s suffrage and civil right; to this day, their constitution is know as the MacArthur Constitution.
1. Farmers: benefited from good weather, improvements in farm machinery, and increases in crop prices
2. women: opened traditional male employment to women, 6 million of whom entered the workforce for the first time
3. veterans: GI Bill of Rights, which provided education and training for veterans to be paid by the U.S. government; also provided loan guarantees to veterans buying homes or farms or starting businesses:
a. the Buffaloes: 92nd Infantry in six months of fighting earned 7 Legion of Merits awards, 64 Silver Stars, and 162 Bronze stars
b. the Tuskegee Airman: the 99th Fighter Squadron, won two Distinguished Unit Citations for outstanding aerial combat against the German Luftwaffe
c. at home:
1. moved into skilled or semiskilled positions (from 16 to 30 percent)
2. CORE: Congress of Racial Equality: an interracial organization founded by James Farmer; staged its first sit-in in a segregated Chicago restaurant in 1942
3. Detroit, June 1943: three days of rioting fueled by false rumors that whites had murdered a black woman and her child and that black rioters had killed 17 whites; Roosevelt had to send federal troops to restore order; 34 people died.
4. many communities formed committees to improve race relations
6. Japanese Americans: distinguished themselves in battle, the all-Nisei 442nd Regimental Combat Team becoming the most decorated unit of the war
a. Korematsu v. united States (1944): The Supreme Court ruled that the gov’t’s policy of evacuating Japanese Americans to camps was justified on the basis of “military necessity”
b. Japanese American Citizens League (JACL): pushed for compensation and in 1965 Congress authorized the spending of $38 million; in 1990, each given $20,000