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Aim: How did the Soviet Union develop under Lenin and Stalin? Title: Dictatorship in the Soviet Union. Do Now: 1. What do you think the phrase, “ COMMAND economy ” might mean? What kind of country(ies) might one find the aforementioned economic system?.

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aim how did the soviet union develop under lenin and stalin title dictatorship in the soviet union

Aim: How did the Soviet Union develop under Lenin and Stalin? Title: Dictatorship in the Soviet Union

Do Now:

1. What do you think the phrase, “COMMAND economy” might mean?

What kind of country(ies) might one find the aforementioned economic system?


Think: Who has the authority to COMMAND you to do anything? Sure can’t be J. George/Pierre, or any other teacher…NOOO! Jason/Pierre can ASK/cajole (persuade) students to be “students,” but never COMMAND anyone – nope. COMMAND falls in the hands of someone with great authority = In words of Tyler Perry’s Madea, the Po! Po! (cops), officers of the law, servicemen & women, etc. COMMAND equates having TOTAL control = dictatorship.

  • Government controls ALLmeans of production. Russia – U.S.S.R (Lenin & Stalin, etc.), Nazi Germany, Italy under Mussolini, etc. Think in terms of dictatorial governance, autocratic, totalitarianism, etc., do as I say, not as I do….
  • As a matter of fact, in 1928 Stalin initiated the first Five-Year Plan, returning the Soviet economy to a “command economy” with government control of ALL industry and agriculture.
key words policies all must know please copy in your notebook
Key words/policies (ALL must know – please copy in your notebook):
  • New Economic Policy (NEP)
  • Purge
  • Command Economy
  • Five-Year Plan
  • Comintern.

Today we will work cohesively (yes comrades, we are forming our own communes) to come to a conclusion as to whether the Bolshevik Revolution succeeded in most, or all of its primary goals = better life from whence Russia’s citizens came under the corrupted/ruinous Tsarist regime of the pre–Bolshevik Revolution .

    • Students are asked to work in their respected groups to complete the graphic organizer.
    • All members of the group must pull his or her own weight (Quietly please, or constructive talk).
analyzing the u s s r s leadership between the wars wwi wwii
Analyzing the U.S.S.R’s leadership between the wars – WWI & WWII.
  • After closely examining the policies/enactments of both V. Lenin and J. Stalin, do you think the Bolshevik Revolution was a success or an utter failure? What say you? Let’s have a discussion. Students are encouraged to:
    • Bring forward key evidence [laws, policies, documents, acts, etc., of the aforementioned leaders in question] to support their stance and how they arrived at it.
    • Feel free to utilize last night’s homework: the graphic organizer along with your attached article in the hopes of enriching the discussion.
  • Summary: After Lenin dies, Stalin seizes power and transforms the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state.
    • “Stalin, Lenin’s successor, dramatically transformed the government of the Soviet Union. Stalin was determined that the Soviet Union should find its place both politically and economically among the most powerful of nations in the world. Using tactics designed to rid himself of opposition, Stalin worked to establish total control of all aspects of life in the Soviet Union. He controlled not only the government, but also the economy and many aspects of citizens’ private lives.” (p. 874)
total centralized state control
Total, Centralized State Control
  • Totalitarianism—government that dominates every aspect of life
  • Totalitarian leader is often dynamic* and persuasive

*pertaining to or characterized by energy or effective action; vigorously active or forceful; energetic: the dynamic president of the firm.

police terror
Police Terror
  • Government uses police to spy on and intimidate people
    • “Normally, the police are expected to respond to criminal activity and protect the citizens. In a totalitarian state, the police serve & enforce the central government’s policies.” (p. 874)
propaganda and censorship
Propaganda and Censorship
  • Totalitarian states spread *propaganda.
  • Government controls all mass media, and **crushes opposing views.

*biased or incomplete information used to sway people


religious or ethnic persecution
Religious or Ethnic Persecution
  • Leaders brand religious, ethnic minorities “enemies of the state.”

State Control

  • of Individuals
  • demands loyalty
  • denies basic liberties
  • expects personalsacrifice for thegood of the state
  • Ideology
  • sets goals ofthe state
  • glorified aims ofthe state
  • glorified govern
  • Methods ofEnforcement:
  • police terror
  • indoctrination
  • censorship
  • persecution


  • Modern Technology
  • mass communicationto spread propaganda
  • advance militaryweapons
  • Dynamic Leader
  • unites people
  • symbolizesgovernment
  • encourages popularsupport throughforce of will
  • State Controlof Society
  • business
  • labor
  • housing
  • education
  • Dictatorship &One-Party Rule
  • exercises absoluteauthority
  • dominates thegovernment
fear of totalitarianism
Fear of Totalitarianism
  • George Orwell illustrated the horrors of a totalitarian government in his novel, 1984. The novel depicts a world in which personal freedom and privacy have vanished. It is a world made possible through modern technology. Even citizen’s homes have television cameras that constantly survey their behavior.
totalitarian leaders in the 20 th century
Totalitarian leaders in the 20th century
  • Adolf Hitler (Germany) 1933-1945
  • Benito Mussolini (Italy) 1925-1943
  • Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) 1929-1953
  • Kim Il Sung (North Korea) 1948-1994
  • Saddam Hussein (Iraq) 1979-2003
stalin builds a totalitarian state
Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State
  • Stalin aims to create Communist state in Russia.
    • He began by destroying his enemies—real and imagined.
police state
Police State
  • Stalin’s police attack opponents with public force and secret actions
    • “They monitored telephone lines, read mail, and planted informers everywhere. Even children told authorities about disloyal remarks they heard at home.”
  • The GreatPurge (sometimes called the “Great Terror”)—terror campaign against Stalin’s perceived enemies.
    • The purge involved
      • The “old Bolsheviks” who helped in the 1917 Revolution.
      • The Red Army leadership
      • Repression of the “Kulaks” or better off, independent landowning peasants
  • By the end of 1938 Stalin is in complete control; 8-13 million people are dead as a result.
russian propaganda and censorship
Russian Propaganda and Censorship
  • Government controls newspapers, radio, and movies.
  • Stalin developed a “cult of personality” often glorifying himself in official propaganda posters (see right).
  • Artists are censored, controlled; their work is harnessed to glorify the Party
more propaganda
More Propaganda
  • A poster from the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) celebrating Stalin’s 70th birthday. The text translates: “The leader and teacher of humanity in the fight for peace, democracy and socialism.”
yet more propaganda
Yet MORE propaganda!
  • This East German poster celebrates Stalin’s 73rd birthday in 1952. The text here translates “Long live the standard bearer of peace. the best friend of the German people.”
education and indoctrination
Education and Indoctrination
  • Government controls all education, from early grades to college.
  • Children learn the virtues of the Communist Party.
  • Teachers and students who challenge the Party are punished.
religious persecution
Religious Persecution
  • Government attacks the Russian Orthodox Church.
  • Magnificent churches and synagogues are destroyed. Religious leaders are killed.
  • People lose all personal rights and freedoms.
new economic system
New Economic System
  • Command economy—the government makes all the economic decisions.
an industrial revolution
An Industrial Revolution
  • Five-Year Plans—Stalin’s plans for developing the economy
  • Result: large growth in industrial power, but a shortage in consumer goods
an agricultural revolution
An Agricultural Revolution
  • In 1928, government creates collective farms—large, state-owned farms.
  • Peasants resist this change, and 5-10 million peasants die in the crackdown.
    • “The government expected that the modern machinery on the collective farms would boost food production and reduce the number of workers. Resistance was especially strong among kulaks, a class of wealthy peasants. The Soviet government decided to eliminate them.
    • Peasants actively fought the government’s attempt to take their land. Many killed livestock and destroyed crops in protest. Soviet secret police herded peasants onto collective farms at the point of a bayonet. Between 5 million and 10 million peasants died as a direct result of Stalin’s agricultural revolution. By 1938, more than 90 percent of all peasants lived on collective farms.” (p. 878)
  • By 1938, agricultural production is rising.
gains at great cost
Gains at Great Cost
  • People better educated, gain new skills.
  • Limited personal freedoms; very few consumer goods.
woman gain rights
Woman Gain Rights
  • Communists say women are equal to men.
  • Women forced to join labor force; state provides child care
  • Many women receive advanced educations and become professionals.
  • Women suffer from the demands of work and family.
powerful ruler
Powerful Ruler
  • By mid-1930s, Stalin has transformed Soviet Union
    • Totalitarian regime; industrial, political power
  • Stalin controls all aspects of Soviet life:
    • Unopposed as dictator, Communist Party leader
    • Rules by terror instead of constitutional government
    • Demands conformity and obedience.
man of steel joseph stalin
Man of Steel – Joseph Stalin