collection and preservation of water and wastewater samples l.
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Collection and Preservation of Water and Wastewater Samples. The objective of sampling is to collect a portion of material small enough in volume to be transported conveniently and yet large enough for analytical purposes while still accurately representing the material being sampled.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
The objective of sampling is to collect a portion of material small enough in volume to be transported conveniently and yet large enough for analytical purposes while still accurately representing the material being sampled.
general requirements
General Requirements

1- Meat the requirements of the sampling program.

2-Handle sample so that it does not deteriorate or become contaminated or compromised before it analyzed.

3- Ensure sampling equipments are clean and quality assured before use.

4-Use sample containers that are clean and free of contaminants.

slide4
5-Fill sample containers with/or without prerinsing with sample.

6-Composite samples can be obtained by collecting over a period of time, depth, or at many different sampling points. 7-Make a record of every sample collected and identify every bottle.

slide5
8-Label bottles and document suffecient information for sample identification.

9-Before collecting samples from distribution systems, flush lines with 3-5 pipe volumes (or until water is being drawn from the main source).

documentation of sufficient information for sample identification
Documentation of sufficient information for sample identification

- unique sample identification number

- name of the sample collector

-date

- time

-exact location

-sample type

-water temperature

-weather conditions

-water level

-stream flow

grab samples
Grab Samples

Grab samples are single samples collected at a specific spot at a site over a short period of time (typically seconds or minutes).

composite samples
Composite Samples

Provides a more representative sampling of heterogeneous matrices in which the concentration of the analytes of interest may vary over short periods of time and/or space.

composite samples10
Composite Samples

Can be obtained by combining portions of multiple grab samples or by using specially designed automatic sampling devices .

integrated discharge weighed samples
Integrated (discharge-weighed) Samples

Mixture of grab samples collected from different points simultaneously, or as nearly so as possible, using discharge-weighed methods

advantages of composite samples
Advantages of Composite Samples
  • Reduced costs of analyzing a large number of samples .
    • more representative samples of heterogeneous matrices,
  • and larger sample sizes when amounts of test samples are limited.
disadvantages of composite samples
Disadvantages of Composite Samples
  • Loss of analyte relationships in individual samples.
  • potential dilution of analytes below detection levels
  • increased potential analytical interferences
  • and increased possibility of analytes interactions.
chain of custody procedures
Chain-of-Custody Procedures

a-Sample labels (includingbar-code labels).

b-Sample seals.

c-Field log book.

d-Chain-of-custody record.

e-Sample analysis request sheet.

f-Sample delivery to the laboratory.

g-Receipt and logging of sample.

h-Assignment of sample for analysis.

i-Disposal.

sample container

Sample Container

Collect samples in a glass or plastic bottles that have been cleansed and rinsed carefully, given a final rinse with deionized or distilled water, and sterilized.

Volume of the sample should be 100 ml or more.

sample containers considerations
Sample Containers Considerations

Silica , sodium, and boron may be leached from soft glass but not plastic.

Trace levels of some pesticides and metals may sorb onto the walls of glass containers.

Use glass containers for all organic analyses such as volatile organics ,semi volatile organics ,pesticides ,PCB’s ,and oil and grease.

Some analytes are light sensitive ,collect them in amber glass containers to minimize photodegradation.

Plastic caps also can be a problem.

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-Temperature

-Redox Potential

-Dissolved

Gases

Determine those parameters in situ.

slide19
-pH

-Electrical Conductivity

-Turbidity

-Alkalinity

Determine those parameters immediately after sample collection.

slide20
-Radon 222

-volatile organic compounds

Zero head-space is important in preservation of those parameters.

what may happen during sample transportation
What may happen during sample transportation ?

Those are best collected in a separate clean bottle and acidified with nitric acid to pH below 2.0 to minimize precipitation and adsorption on container walls.

what may happen during sample transportation22
What may happen during sample transportation ?

Hardness can be preserved by adding nitric acid to pH <2

what may happen during sample transportation23
What may happen during sample transportation ?

Changes caused by growth of microorganisms are greatly retarded by keeping the sample at a low temperature (<4 C) but above freezing.

what may happen during sample transportation24
What may happen during sample transportation ?

Dechlorinate sample , add NaOH to pH >12,

And refrigerate in dark.

preservation and storage
Preservation and Storage

General Consideration

1-Start microbiological examination of water samples as soon as possible after collection.

2-Ice samples preferably at <10 C during transport if they can’t be analyzed within 1h after collection.

3-Analyze samples on day of receipt whenever possible and refrigerate overnight if arrival is too late for analyzing on same day.

preservation and storage26
Preservation and Storage

4-Do not exceed 30h holding time from collection to analysis for coliform bacteria. 5-Do not exceed 8h holding time for hete-

rotrophic plate counts.