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Complex ions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Complex ions. Transition metals can form complexes because their ions have a high charge density: they have quite a large nuclear charge but a re relatively small ;

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complex ions
Complex ions
  • Transition metals can form complexes because their ions have a high charge density:
    • they have quite a large nuclear charge but are relatively small;
    • the 3d electrons are not so effective(as 2s or 2p electrons) at shielding the effect of the ionic charge which really comes from the nucleus.
  • This allows the transition metal ions to have a great polarising power and they can attract lone pairs from other atoms to form complexes.
complex ions1
Complex ions
  • Ions formed by a metal ion to which a number of ligands (molecules and/or negative ions) are bonded using a dative bond
  • Ligand = molecule or negative ion with a non-bonding pair of electrons which is used to make a dative bond
  • Example: [Fe(H2O)6]3+
  • Coordination number is the number of ligands that surround the metal ion
shapes complex ions
Shapes complex ions

Depends on coordination number

  • If 6 then shape = octahedral
  • If 4 then shape = tetrahedral

(or square planar = less common)

  • If 2 then shape = linear
factors affecting colour
Factors affecting colour
  • nuclear charge
  • oxidation state of ion (i.e. number of electrons)
  • ligand
  • coordination number
  • shape of the complex