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Solubility of Salts & Complex Ions. Solubility of Salts. Precipitation reactions occur when one of the products in a double replacement is a water-_________ compound. Predicting Solubility. The good guys are ALWAYS soluble. #1 NO CHO CLO N. ClO 3 - ClO 4 -. Alkali metals. NO 3 -.

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solubility of salts
Solubility of Salts
  • Precipitation reactions occur when one of the products in a double replacement is a water-_________ compound
predicting solubility
Predicting Solubility
  • The good guys are ALWAYS soluble

#1 NOCHOCLON

ClO3-

ClO4-

Alkali

metals

NO3-

C2H3O2-

NH4+

other ions
Other Ions
  • Halogens are mostly ______; except with Ag, Pb
  • OH- are mostly ______; except with CaBaSr
  • CO32-, PO42-, S2-, and SO32- are mostly ________.
solubility of insoluble salts
Solubility of Insoluble Salts
  • “Insoluble” means that less than 0.01 mole dissolves per liter
  • SOME still dissolves according to an equilbrium expression.
solubility product constant k sp
Solubility Product ConstantKsp
  • The equilibrium constant that reflects the solubility of a compound
    • “sp”: solubility product
  • AgBr(s) <--->

Ksp = 5.4 x10-13

  • Appendix J lists Ksp values
practice problems
Practice Problems
  • Write the equililibrium expressions for the solid in water.

1) BaF2 (s)

2) Ag2CO3 (s)

calculating k sp from solubility
Calculating Ksp from Solubility
  • In a saturated solution of BaF2, 0.063 grams of the compound is dissolved in 100 mL. Use this information calculate the Ksp for BaF2.

BaF2 (s) <--> Ba2+(aq) + 2F-(aq)

estimating the salt solubility from k sp
Estimating the Salt Solubility from Ksp
  • The Ksp of Ag2CO3 is 8.5 x 10-12. What is the concentration of Ag2CO3, Ag+, and CO32- dissolved? Convert Ag2CO3 concentration to g/L.
solubility the common ion effect
Solubility & the Common Ion Effect
  • The solubility of a salt is lowered by the presence of a common ion in the solution. (LeChatlier's)
  • Write the reaction and expression for the solubility of Zn(OH)2.
practice problem
Practice Problem
  • Calculate the solubility in mol/L of Zn(OH)2 in the presence of 0.010M Zn(NO3)2,
    • Ksp of Zinc Hydroxide = 3.0 E-17
k sp and q reaction quotient
Ksp and Q (reaction quotient)
  • Q reflects concentration of ions ___________________ .
  • K reflects the concentration of ions __________________ .

Q = Ksp: __________________

Q < Ksp: __________________

Q > Ksp: __________________

precipitation reaction
Precipitation Reaction
  • If the concentration of Mg2+ is 1.5x10-6 M and the concentration of OH- is 1.0x10-4 M, will precipitation of Mg(OH)2 occur? Ksp = 5.6x10-12.
precipitation reaction cont
Precipitation Reactioncont
  • If the concentration of magnesium remains 1.5x10-6 M, what concentration of the hydroxide ion is needed to precipitate magnesium hydroxide?
precipitation reactions
Precipitation Reactions
  • The value for the Ksp of of AgBr is 5.0E-13. Write the Ksp expression.
  • A student mixes 10 mL of 1.5 x 10-4 M AgNO3 with 2.0 mL of 5.0x10-4 M NaBr and stirs. What will the student observe? Justify with a calculation.