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Optimizing Butter Making. Laura Kelley and Mohammad Biswas CHEN 3820 Chemical Engineering Lab 1 April 24, 2007. Buttery Facts. Butter is made by the agitation of the cream layer from unhomogenized milk.

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Optimizing butter making l.jpg

Optimizing Butter Making

Laura Kelley and Mohammad Biswas

CHEN 3820 Chemical Engineering Lab 1

April 24, 2007


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Buttery Facts

  • Butter is made by the agitation of the cream layer from unhomogenized milk.

  • Butter has been made for many centuries in the same fashion, but technological advancements have lead to faster ways to make butter.

  • Our project involves making butter by varying temperature and adding co-solvents.


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Background: How to Make Butter

Milk Content Analysis, per 100 grams

  • Milk: Basis of Butter

    • Milk is an emulsion of fat globules within a water based fluid

    • Milk consists mostly of water

    • Fat separates from the milk to form cream layer

    • This layer is more concentrated in fat than the milk

Reference: Milk Content,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk, April 22, 2007


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Background: How to Make Butter

  • Churning: Means to Butter

    • Early period butter making process

    • Collect the cream layer from the milk

    • Allowed to sour over a couple of days at room temperature

    • Use Butter Churn to produce butter and buttermilk

    • Remove butter from buttermilk and rinse with cold water

    • Add salt to butter for preservation


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How We Made Butter

  • Main Ingredient:

    • Heavy Whipping Cream

  • Methods Used:

    • Electric Mixer

    • Manual Shaking

  • Agitation causes physical separation of butter and buttermilk


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Stages of Butter Churning

  • Heavy Cream Layer

    • This was obtained after separation of the milk emulsion

    • Agitation begins at this stage

  • Whip Cream

    • Stiff peaks form

    • This is what is purchased at stores after adding other ingredients


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Stages of Butter Churning

  • Transition Stage

    • Butter begins to form

    • Appearance of the signature pale yellow color

  • Final Stage: Butter

    • Formation of clumps

    • Separation of butter and buttermilk

    • Wash butter to remove excess buttermilk for storage


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Experiment 1: Different Ingredients

  • Main Ingredient:

    • Heavy Whipping Cream

  • Co-solvents Examined:

    • Salt

    • Calcium Supplements (Calcium Sulfate)

    • Baking Powder

    • Cornstarch

    • Sugar



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Experiment 2: Addition of Salt

  • Amount of Salt for every two cups (~ 460 g) of heavy cream:

    • ½ teaspoon (2.4 grams)

    • 1 teaspoon (4.7 grams)

    • 1 tablespoon (14.2 grams)

    • 2 tablespoons (28.5 grams)

    • 3 tablespoons (42.7 grams)



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Experiment 3: Temperature

  • Temperature Variation:

    • 0oC

    • 10oC

    • Room Temperature

    • 30oC

  • Determine the role of temperature on the formation of butter



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Butter can be produced the fastest with an ionic co-solvents

Increasing the amount of co-solvent does not always decrease the time to make butter

Ideal conditions to make butter is at room temperature

Conclusions


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References

Cooking for Engineers, http://www.cookingforengineers.com, April 2, 2007

Milk, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milk, April 22, 2007

Questions?

  • Now let us have some Bread and Sweet Butter


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