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Cocoa Butter. crystallization, tempering, bloom. Plan. Lipid structure, crystallization & polymorphism Tempering theory & practice Bloom. Fatty Acids. Stearic acid 18 carbon carboxylic acid linear molecule. Oleic Acid 16 carbon carboxylic acid single double bond puts a “kink”. O. C.

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cocoa butter

Cocoa Butter

crystallization, tempering, bloom

slide2
Plan
  • Lipid structure, crystallization & polymorphism
  • Tempering theory & practice
  • Bloom
fatty acids
Fatty Acids

Stearic acid

18 carbon carboxylic acid

linear molecule

Oleic Acid

16 carbon carboxylic acid

single double bond puts a “kink”

O

C

HO

fatty acids in cocoa butter
Fatty Acids in Cocoa Butter

…plus about 5 others

homogeneous nucleation
Homogeneous Nucleation

T>Tmelt

T=Tmelt

T<<Tmelt

supercooling

Crystal lattice

True melt

Crystal embryos

heterogeneous nucleation
Heterogeneous Nucleation

T>Tmelt

T=Tmelt

T<Tmelt

less supercooling

Crystal lattice

True melt

Nucleation

slide8

heating

cooling

100% solid

  • SFC is a function of temperature
  • SFC is a function of temperature history
  • SFC is a function of time
  • SFC is a function of composition

Solid Fat Content

100% liquid

hot

cold

Temperature

polymorphism
Polymorphism

Molecular packing can vary by angle of tilt...

key facts
Key Facts
  • Desirable forms have a high melting point
  • The higher melting point, the more stable
  • More stable fats are more dense
  • More stable forms are slow to form
  • Like crystals will grow from like
  • Cocoa butter can convert from a less to more stable form
slide13
As the oil cools the fat molecules slow down
  • Eventually try to “stop” in contact with another molecule (crystal lattice)
  • It takes time to get into optimal position (most dense)
  • Pre-existing nuclei can help form a template
cocoa butter15
Cocoa butter
  • Cocoa butter is largely triglycerides
  • There has several stable crystal polymorphs
  • Good chocolate can only be made from the stable crystals
tempering
Tempering

Tempering is a time-temperature process ensure the formation of chocolate in the right crystal habit

In practice this means we want 1-2% solids at ~32oC which will act as seeds when the melt is cooled

tempering18
Tempering
  • Why temper?
    • Demolding
    • Snap
    • Gloss
    • Resistance to bloom
  • Temperature and time control
tempering sequence
Tempering Sequence

50oC

Melt

Cool - no crystallization

Form mix of crystals

Melt out unstable polymorphs

1

2

3

4

temperature

32oC

30-32oC

1

27oC

2

4

3

time

tempering practice
Tempering Practice
  • Hand tempering
  • Batch tempering
  • Continuous tempering
  • Temper meters
hand tempering

Melt

Cool - no crystallization

Form mix of crystals

Melt out unstable polymorphs

1

2

3

4

Hand Tempering
  • Melt fat
  • Pour melt onto slab and work with spatulas
  • Return semicrystalline batch back to warm melt
  • Mold chocolate
kettle tempering

Melt

Cool - no crystallization

Form mix of crystals

Melt out unstable polymorphs

1

2

3

4

Kettle Tempering
tempering24
Tempering
  • Tempering is a process to ensure the formation of stable crystals
  • Tempering is a time-temperature process
  • Tempering can be done as a batch or continuous process
  • Degree of temper can be measured from a cooling curve
what is bloom
What is bloom?
  • White “moldy” appearance at the surface
  • Major reason for product failure
  • NOT a health hazard

Often caused by large fat crystals growing from the surface and scattering light

types of bloom
Types of Bloom
  • High temperature bloom
  • Low temperature bloom
  • Fat migration bloom
high temperature bloom
High Temperature Bloom
  • Fat is stored hot enough to melt (~35oC)
  • Fat resolidifies and is no longer tempered
  • Untempered chocolate rapidly grows bloom

U se a high melting fat if you can’t be certain of distribution temperature

low temperature bloom
Low Temperature Bloom
  • In well tempered chocolate stored below its melting point
  • Associated with V to VI transition
  • Occurs faster at high temperatures (esp. if temp. cycles)

Reduce storage temperature

migration bloom
Migration Bloom
  • The movement of fat from an enrobed center to the surface
  • Dissolves some cocoa butter and carries it to the surface
  • Cocoa butter recrystalizes at the surface
how to avoid bloom
How to avoid bloom
  • Temper the chocolate properly
  • Store cool
  • Add butter-fat
  • Add emulsifier (e.g. sorbitan monostearate)
bloom
Bloom
  • A moldy white deposit on the surface
  • Large fat crystals formed by migration and recrystallization
  • Not a health hazard but it is a cause for product rejection
  • Avoid by good tempering and controlled storage