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Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012. Physical Computing. Taking the computing off the desktop and putting it to work in the physical world Robert Kenny Educational Technology April 27, 2012.

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physical computing

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Physical Computing

Taking the computing off the desktop and putting it to work in the physical world

Robert Kenny

Educational Technology

April 27, 2012

physical computing1

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Physical Computing
  • The interaction of a programmable computing device with a physical phenomenon.
  • It is usually repetitive and reactive.
  • Responses to a physical input with an output can be manifested with physical action.
physical computing2

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Physical Computing
  • Input and Output is a physical phenomenon converted to a form for the computing device (Process)
  • Conversion through sensors or transducers
  • Process usually a programmable medium
slide4

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Physical Computing Example:

Process-monitors temp. and responds with signal at certain temperatures

Output - Signal from processor turns on fan

Input – Sensor detects Temp. chg

T

physical computing3

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Physical Computing
  • The microcontroller is at the heart of Physical Computing
  • Smaller and more limited version of the microprocessor that powers desktop computer workstations.
  • This device is in use in cars, microwave ovens, cell phones, and even in their digital watches.
physical computing4

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Physical Computing
  • Microcontrollers are programmed with a simplified version of common programming languages
  • Include the elements of basic input and output commands, decision making statements, certain control statements and syntax, and other commands based on the features of the unique microcontroller.
slide7

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Sample Code

/*  DigitalReadSerial Reads a digital input on pin 2, prints the result to the serial monitor   This example code is in the public domain. */void setup() {  Serial.begin(9600);  pinMode(2, INPUT);}void loop() {  int sensorValue = digitalRead(2);  Serial.println(sensorValue, DEC);}

the arduino board

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

The Arduino Board
  • The Arduino board, is only one of several Physical Computing application modules on the market.
  • It uses an Amtel microcontroller chip on board and an open source software based on “Process” and other open source software to program it.
slide9

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Arduino Board

Microcontroller chip

  • Communicates with other computers through a USB/serial port.
  • It can have its program uploaded through this port
  • Gets power through the USB port or through a Power-In jack.
  • See below for the specifications for the Arduino.

Input/Output Connections

USB Port

Input/Output Connections

Power in

Serial Comm. Chip

slide10

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

The following links demonstrate Physical Computing using the Arduino board:

Demo Video 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n92t_RjQEGg

Demo Video 2:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b31GcBtN13U

Demo Video 3:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=48l6o0IevWQ

Also see the following links for some more applications of Physical Computing:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFAsc1DcoFE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFEkx0gxcws

specifications

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Specifications
  • Microcontroller: ATmega328
  • Operating Voltage: 5V
  • Input Voltage (recommended): 7-12V
  • Input Voltage (limits): 6-20V
  • Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
  • Analog Input Pins: 6
  • DC Current per I/O Pin: 40 mA
  • DC Current for 3.3V Pin:50 mA
  • Flash Memory:32 KB (ATmega328) of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
slide12

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Code for the Temperature Change Detect Project:

#define ledB 8 //the pin for the Blue led

#define ledW 7 //the pin for the White led

#define ledR 4 //the pin for the Red led

int tempVin = 0; //initialize variable tempVin as determined by the thermistor

void setup() {

pinMode (ledB, OUTPUT); // set ledB as an output

pinMode (ledW, OUTPUT); // set ledW as an output

pinMode (ledR, OUTPUT); // set ledR as an output

}

void loop() {

tempVin = analogRead(0); //read the input voltage value from themistor

//if the temp value "hot", then turn on red led

while (tempVin >=600){

digitalWrite(ledW,LOW); //turn off white led

digitalWrite(ledR, HIGH); //turn on red led

delay (500);

tempVin = analogRead(0);

}

//if temp value is “cold”, turn on blue led

while (tempVin <= 500) {

digitalWrite(ledW,LOW); //turn off white led

digitalWrite(ledB, HIGH); //turn on the Blue led

delay (500);

tempVin = analogRead(0);

}

//if temp value is room temp, turn on white led

{ digitalWrite(ledW, HIGH); //turn on the white led

digitalWrite(ledR,LOW);

digitalWrite(ledB,LOW);

delay (500); } }

Note: Comments are preceded by “//”. Some comments follow their code statement.

slide13

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Code for the Light Brightness Detect Project:

//initialize variable from light sensor

intlightVin = 0;

//initialize variable for output to buzzer

intsoundVout = 0; //initialize variable for output to buzzer

//set pin 9 on Arduino output connection to OUTPUT

void setup(){

pinMode(9,OUTPUT);

}

void loop(){

//input from light sensor

lightVin = analogRead(0);

//buzzer sound is a ratio of the light signal in

soundVout =255-(lightVin/4);

//send signal to buzzer

analogWrite(9,soundVout);

}

Note: Comments are preceded by “//”.

educational context

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Educational Context
  • Computer technology and critical thinking skills have been cited as being a major focus for education.
  • In recent surveys, US secondary schools have fallen into the middle of the pack of industrial nations in science and math performance.
  • Technology and engineering use these skills (science, math, and critical thinking), therefore the sharper focus is on increasing them.
  • The STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) initiative is advocating new policies in education.
educational context1

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

Educational Context
  • Other fields, including the non-technical fields of design and architecture will also need more of these skills to compete.
  • Learning about Physical Computing will contribute to this effort. It is already taught in some institutions of higher learning in the art and design schools.
  • Could be a nice complementary study in both Technology Education and the Arts in the high school levels as well.
references

Computer Science, Software Engineering & Robotics Workshop, FGCU, April 27-28, 2012

References

O’Sullivan, D., Igoe, T. 2004. Physical Computing: Sensing and Controlling the Physical World with  Computers, Boston, MA: Thomson.

President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (2010).Report to the President: Prepare and Inspire: K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and math (stem) for America’s future. Retrieved from

http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/pcast-stemed-report.pdf

McMahon, G. (2009). Critical Thinking and ICT Integration in a Western Australian Secondary School. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 269–281.