dense connective n.
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Dense Connective

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  1. Dense Connective • Can be regular, irregular, or elastic • Regular: • Primarily parallel collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, major cell type is fibroblast • Attaches muscles to bones or to other muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction • Located in tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses • Irregular • Primarily irregularly arranges collagen fibers, some elastic but mostly fibroblasts • Withstands tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength • Located in fibrous capsules of organs and of joints, dermis of skin, submucosa of digestive tract • Dense Irregular • Dense Regular

  2. (Dense) Elastic Connective • Contains a high proportion of elastic fibers • Allows tissue to recoil after stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration • Located in walls of large arteries, withing ligaments associated w/ vertebral column, and within the walls of the bronchial tubes

  3. Cartilage • Can be hyaline, elastic, or fibrocartilage • Hyaline: • Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondoblasts produce the matrix and when mature chondrocytes lie in lacunae • Supports and reinforces; resilient cushion; resists compressive stress • Located in embryonic skeleton, covers ends of long bones in joints, forms costal cartilages in ribs, cartilage in nose, trachea and larynx • Elastic: • Like hyaline but with more elastic fibers in matrix • Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility • Supports external ear and epiglottis • Fibrocartilage: • Matrix similar to (less firm) hyaline; many thick collagen fibers predominate • Tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock • Located in intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, knee joints • Hyaline • Elastic • Fibrocartilage

  4. Bone (Osseous) Cells • Can be compact or spongy bone • Hard, calcifies matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae; well-vascularized • Supports and protects; provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium, minerals, fat; marrow inside bones is site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) • Located in bones

  5. Blood (RBCs and WBCs) • Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix of plasma • Transports respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances • Contained in blood vessels

  6. Neural/Nervous Tissue • Nervous systems are composed of nerve cells/neurons and glia (support cells). • Neurons are organized into information-processing neural networks • The nervous system regulates and controls body functions; they respond to stimuli and transmit electrical impulses over substantial distances within the body.

  7. Neuron • Neurons are branching cells; cell processes may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing body • Neurons transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control their activity; support cells support and protect neurons • Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves

  8. Brain Tissue • Spinal Cord • Brain

  9. Reproductive Tissue • Organs secrete a variety of hormones, especially active during puberty, which play a vital roles in development and function of the sex organsand other organs in the body. • Purpose is to produce fertile offspring.

  10. Spermatogonium • Stem cell for sperm • Spermatocytes divide by mitosis until puberty, then all daughter cells become spermatogonia.

  11. Developing Follicle • The maturation of the follicle is part of the ovarian cycle • Process begins in ovaries and ends in ovulation

  12. Web Sites and Texts • • • • • • • • • My AP Bio textbook: Principles of Life • My Anatomy/Physiology textbook: Human Anatomy & Physiology