Dense Connective • Can be regular, irregular, or elastic • Regular: • Primarily parallel collagen fibers, few elastic fibers, major cell type is fibroblast • Attaches muscles to bones or to other muscles; attaches bones to bones; withstands great tensile stress when pulling force is applied in one direction • Located in tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses • Irregular • Primarily irregularly arranges collagen fibers, some elastic but mostly fibroblasts • Withstands tension exerted in many directions; provides structural strength • Located in fibrous capsules of organs and of joints, dermis of skin, submucosa of digestive tract • Dense Irregular • Dense Regular
(Dense) Elastic Connective • Contains a high proportion of elastic fibers • Allows tissue to recoil after stretching; maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries; aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration • Located in walls of large arteries, withing ligaments associated w/ vertebral column, and within the walls of the bronchial tubes
Cartilage • Can be hyaline, elastic, or fibrocartilage • Hyaline: • Amorphous but firm matrix; collagen fibers form an imperceptible network; chondoblasts produce the matrix and when mature chondrocytes lie in lacunae • Supports and reinforces; resilient cushion; resists compressive stress • Located in embryonic skeleton, covers ends of long bones in joints, forms costal cartilages in ribs, cartilage in nose, trachea and larynx • Elastic: • Like hyaline but with more elastic fibers in matrix • Maintains the shape of a structure while allowing great flexibility • Supports external ear and epiglottis • Fibrocartilage: • Matrix similar to (less firm) hyaline; many thick collagen fibers predominate • Tensile strength allows it to absorb compressive shock • Located in intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, knee joints • Hyaline • Elastic • Fibrocartilage
Bone (Osseous) Cells • Can be compact or spongy bone • Hard, calcifies matrix containing many collagen fibers; osteocytes lie in lacunae; well-vascularized • Supports and protects; provides levers for the muscles to act on; stores calcium, minerals, fat; marrow inside bones is site for blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) • Located in bones
Blood (RBCs and WBCs) • Red and white blood cells in a fluid matrix of plasma • Transports respiratory gases, nutrients, wastes, and other substances • Contained in blood vessels
Neural/Nervous Tissue • Nervous systems are composed of nerve cells/neurons and glia (support cells). • Neurons are organized into information-processing neural networks • The nervous system regulates and controls body functions; they respond to stimuli and transmit electrical impulses over substantial distances within the body.
Neuron • Neurons are branching cells; cell processes may be quite long extend from the nucleus-containing body • Neurons transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors and to effectors which control their activity; support cells support and protect neurons • Located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Brain Tissue • Spinal Cord • Brain
Reproductive Tissue • Organs secrete a variety of hormones, especially active during puberty, which play a vital roles in development and function of the sex organsand other organs in the body. • Purpose is to produce fertile offspring.
Spermatogonium • Stem cell for sperm • Spermatocytes divide by mitosis until puberty, then all daughter cells become spermatogonia.
Developing Follicle • The maturation of the follicle is part of the ovarian cycle • Process begins in ovaries and ends in ovulation
Web Sites and Texts • http://www.stegen.k12.mo.us/tchrpges/sghs/ksulkowski../images/simplecub.jpg • http://www.histology.leeds.ac.uk/tissue_types/connective/connective_tissue_types.php • http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/meded/Histo/frames/h_frame7.html • http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/corepages/connective/connect.htm#reticular • http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Labs/Anatomy_%26_Physiology/A%26P201/Connective_Tissues/Cartilage.htm • http://www.siumed.edu/~dking2/intro/bldcells.htm • http://www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.au/mb140/corepages/nervous/nervous.htm#labcord • http://www.webpathology.com/image.asp?case=27&n=2 • My AP Bio textbook: Principles of Life • My Anatomy/Physiology textbook: Human Anatomy & Physiology