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SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY: FROM THE INSIDE. Self-determination theory is an organismic theory Not a social-cognitive theory. Social-cognitive theories are incentive-based People will engage in behaviours to the extent that they feel capable of achieving desirable outcomes

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slide4

Social-cognitive theories are incentive-based

People will engage in behaviours to theextent that they feel capable of achievingdesirable outcomes

People are active organisms to the extentthat they seek to achieve desirable outcomes

slide5

Social-cognitive theories

However, they are still driven by outcomeexpectancies

Expectancies are shaped by the social environment

slide6

Organismic theories

The organism is anactive systemwith aninherent propensity for growth and theresolution of inconsistencies

When functioning optimally it displaysan orderly regulation and integrationamong its parts

slide7

Organismic theories

Organismic development entails bothincreasing diversification and integration

When functioning optimally, behaviours areengaged in that promote diversification andintegration

The organism has needs that when satisfiedpromote diversification and integration

slide8

The organism becomesincreasingly morecomplex and diversified

And becomes increasinglyindividualised

But maintains its integrity

Only does this when itsneeds are satisfied

slide9

Organismic principles and psychological growth

The synthetic principle (Freud)

Individuation (Jung)

Actualising tendency (Maslow) Cognitive organisation (Piaget)

slide10

Organismic principles in Piaget’sdevelopmental theory

Cognitive development involves a progressive differentiation of cognitive elements and the assimilation andaccommodation of experiences into

organised, coherent structures

slide11

Piaget’s developmental theory

Cognitive development is facilitated by environments that provide situations that require adaptation (through assimilation and accommodation)

slide12

Social-cognitive theories assume that:

Behaviour is influenced by beliefs about reward contingencies (expectancies)

Expectancies are shaped by the social environment

There is no inherent integrative or growth tendency

slide13

Implications for intervention

Social-cognitive approach:Shaping, training, modifying, controlling

Organismic approach:Facilitating, supporting, nurturing

slide14

Implications for intervention: Organismic approach

In clinical settings, clients usually present with a need to resolve inconsistencies

The therapist’s job is to facilitate the naturalintegrative tendency to help the client resolvethese inconsistencies

slide15

Self-determination theory posits an innateorganisational tendency toward growth,integration of the self, and the resolutionof psychological inconsistency

Individuals seek to extend themselves andto integrate what they experience

The principle of organismic integration

slide16

The integrative tendency requires thesatisfaction of certain psychological needs:

To feel competent

To feel self-determining (autonomous)

To feel related

slide17

The nature of needs in SDT

SDT is not a drive theory

Drive theories posit that the set point ofthe organism isequilibrium or satiation

Needs are understood as deficiencies

In SDT the set point is growth-oriented

slide18

SELF-DETERMINATIONTHEORY

Comprises three sub-theories:

Cognitive evaluation theory

How events influence intrinsic motivation

Organismic integration theory

The development of self-determination

Causality orientations theory

Individual differences

slide19

Competence

The need to feel that one can reliablyproduce desired outcomes and/oravoid negative outcomes

slide20

Competence

Competence requires:

1. An understanding of the relationshipbetween a behaviour and its consequences

Outcome expectations

Strategy beliefs, (Skinner, 1995)

slide21

Competence

Competence requires:

2. A need to feel capable of successfullyengaging in the behaviour

Efficacy expectations

Capacity beliefs (Skinner, 1995).

slide22

CET:

Events influence a person’s intrinsicmotivation to the extent that they affectperceptions of competence within thecontext of some self-determination

slide23

.86***

.17 **

.87***

.15 *

.84***

.35 **

Markland & Hardy (1997)

Interest-

Enjoyment

Self-Determination

Pressure-

Tension

Perceived

Competence

Effort-

Importance

slide24

Self-determination, perceived competence and interest-enjoymentMarkland (1999)

High Self-Determination

Low Self-Determination

High

Interest - enjoyment

Low

Low

High

PerceivedCompetence

slide25

Autonomy

Autonomy relates to the feeling that one isacting in accord with one’s sense of self

When acting autonomously, individuals feelthat they are causal agents with respect totheir actions

A sense of choosing rather than feelingcompelled or controlled

slide26

Freedom is the right to choose: the right to create for oneself the alternatives of choice. Without the possibility of choice, and the exercise of choice, a man is not a man but a member, an instrument, a thing.

slide27

Internally versus externally imposed control

In SDT, the central issue in autonomy is the experience of freedom from pressure,regardless of who is imposing the pressure

slide28

Internally versus externally imposed control

"One can be as tyrannical toward oneself as others can be. The issue is not so much whether the source of control is oneself or another, but whether or not one is being controlled"

Deci & Ryan (1985)

slide29

Internally versus externally imposed control

We can pressurise ourselves into acting

‘I must…’,

‘I have to…’

‘I ought to…’

Demands imposed on oneself

slide30

Self-control procedures

Self-monitoring

Self-reinforcement

Self-punishment

Stimulus controlGoal-setting

slide31

Atkins et al. (1984)Self-control of exercise

Behaviour modification programme aimed at‘developing self-control’

Self-reinforcement contingent on daily walking

A number of participants dropped out becausethey ‘did not like to be regimented’

slide32

Internally informational versusinternally controlling regulation

To regulate one's own behaviour in a controllingfashion leads to tension and pressure to perform.To regulate one's behaviour in an informationalfashion allows freedom from pressure and theexperience of choice

slide33

The Jekyll & Hyde nature of goals

(Burton, 1992)

Goals may be a positive motivational force,directing attention to the task and mobilizingeffort.

On the other hand, they may be a source ofstress because they represent the standardsby which individuals define failure as well assuccess.

slide34

Controlling

Informational

I must exercise to ...lose weight, look good,prevent heart disease, etcLack of choice/ Pressure

Task MasterySocial AffiliationEnjoyment

Choice/Competence

Self-Determination

Self-Determination

Reasons for Exercising

slide35

WeightManagement

Appearance

Self-determination mediates the effects ofexercise motives on intrinsic motivation

Markland (1999)

Enjoyment

Recreation

Affiliation

Self-

Determination

IntrinsicMotivation

HealthPressures

Ill-HealthAvoidance

slide36

WeightManagement

Appearance

HealthPressures

Self-determination mediates the effects ofexercise motives on intrinsic motivation

Markland (1999)

Enjoyment

Recreation

Affiliation

Self-

Determination

IntrinsicMotivation

Ill-HealthAvoidance

slide37

Enjoyment

.36*

Recreation

.39*

Affiliation

.20*

-.15*

WeightManagement

IntrinsicMotivation

-.14*

Appearance

-.14*

HealthPressures

.06 ns

Ill-HealthAvoidance

Self-determination mediates the effects ofexercise motives on intrinsic motivation

Markland (1999)

.84*

Self-

Determination

Chi Sq 28 = 31.11, p = .31; rmsea = .02;srmr = .06; NNFI = .99

slide38

Internally versus externally imposed control

The boundary between internal andexternal is not the skin

Behavioural regulation that emanatesfrom within the individual is notnecessarily motivationally adaptive

slide39

Internally versus externally imposed control

Autonomy requires that engagementin an activity is freely chosen inaccordance with one’s other goalsand values

slide40

Autonomy is not independence

Autonomy relates to the feeling that one isacting in accord with one’s sense of selfand values

One’s sense of self and values are largelydetermined by social influences

To the extent that one has assimilatedthe values of significant others one canstill be autonomous

slide41

Relatedness

The need to feel close to others andemotionally secure in one’s relationships

The sense that significant others careabout one’s well-being

slide42

Relatedness

During infancy, more securelyattached children demonstratemore exploratory behavioursthan less well attached children(e.g. Bowlby, 1976)

slide43

Relatedness

Relatedness provides a securebase that makes the expressionof the innate growth tendencymore likely and more robust

(Deci & Ryan, 2000)

slide44

The facilitating environment

The social environment can facilitate orthwart the integrative tendency to theextent that the psychological needs arenurtured or impeded

slide45

The facilitating environment

When the social environment providesfor the nurturance of psychological needs,the person will move towards integrationand a unified sense of self, and developthe personal resources for engaging inadaptive self-regulation of behaviour(Deci & Ryan, 2000)

slide46

The facilitating environment

When the social environment is perceivedas controlling, over-challenging andrejecting of one’s needs the integrativetendency will be thwarted, often leadingto defensive behaviours and behaviouraland psychological withdrawal

(Deci & Ryan, 2000)

slide47

Internalisation of behavioural regulation

The natural process by which individualstransform socially-sanctioned activitiesinto personally endorsed values andself-regulationsDeci & Ryan (2000)

slide48

Internalisation of behavioural regulation

Individuals assimilate and reconstituteexternal regulations so that they canbe self-determined when enacting them

Deci & Ryan (2000)

slide49

Internalisation of behavioural regulation

Not merely conforming to social norms

When fully internalised, a regulation is notonly ‘taken in’ but is transformed andsynthesised, so that it is congruent withthe person’s other goals, values andsense of self

slide50

Non-Self

Determined

Amotivation External Introjected Identified Integrated Intrinsic

Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation

IncreasingSelf-Determination

The self-determination continuum

Degrees of self-determination in behavioural regulation

slide51

Amotivation

Amotivation is a state of lacking anyintention to engage in a behaviourand is a completely non-self-determinedform of regulation.

slide52

Amotivation

Results from not valuing an activity,not feeling competent to engage init and/or not feeling that it willproduce desired outcomes

slide53

External regulation

Behaviour is undertaken in order to satisfysome external demand

Typically, pressures imposed by significantothers, to attain tangible rewards, or toavoid punishment

slide54

External regulation

When regulated in this way, people maybe motivated to comply with the externalpressure to act but will do so unwillingly,even resentfully, and are unlikely tocontinue with the activity if the externalpressures are relaxed

slide55

External regulation

Alternatively, other-imposed pressure toact may be perceived as a threat to autonomy

Individuals may react to this with defianceand by doing just the opposite

slide56

Introjected regulation

External regulation is ‘taken in’ but notaccepted as one’s own

Swallowed whole but not digested (Perls, 1973)

As if the regulator and the regulatee wereseparate persons (Ryan et al. 1995)

slide57

Introjected regulation

Controls are applied through self-imposedpressures in order to avoid guilt or tomaintain self-esteem

Internally controlling regulation

slide58

Introjected regulation

Accompanied by a negative emotional tone,tension, and an inner conflict between theself-imposed demands to engage in thebehaviour and the failure to value it

Thus behaviours regulated by introjectionare unlikely to remain stable

slide59

Identified regulation

A conscious acceptance of the behaviouras being important in order to achievepersonally valued outcomes

The valued outcome provides a strongincentive that can override difficulties inmaintaining the behaviour

slide60

Integrated regulation

The assimilation of identified regulationso that engaging in the behaviour is fullycongruent with one’s sense of self

When integrated one experiences a senseof coherence between what one does andwho one is

slide61

Integrated regulation

Similar to intrinsic regulation in that thebehaviour is engaged in willingly, with nosense of coercion, and is therefore fullyself-determined

However, the behaviour is still engagedin for separable outcomes rather than forthe satisfaction inherent in engaging inthe activity itself

slide62

Amotivation External Introjected Identified Integrated IntrinsicAmotivation External Introjected Identified Integrated Intrinsic

Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation

IncreasingSelf-Determination

The self-determination continuum

Degrees of self-determination in behavioural regulation

Unmotivated,lackingintention

Drivenby externalpressures

Driven byinternalpressures

Valuetheoutcome

Coherentsense ofself

Interestandenjoyment

Non-Self

Determined

slide63

Organismic integration

Organism has basicneeds that must be met

slide64

Facilitating integration

Integration is facilitated by ambientsupports for the needs to feelcompetent, autonomous and related

slide65

Facilitating integration

Three dimensions of a motivationallysupportive environment that correspondto the three psychological needs

slide66

Autonomy Support

Structure

Involvement

Autonomy

Competence

Relatedness

A motivationally-supportive environment

slide67

Autonomy support

Encourage individuals to:

Determine what is important for them

Initiate actions themselves and for their own reasons

Recognize that they can exercise choice and self-direction regarding their behaviour

slide68

Autonomy support

Explore available options

Minimise pressure to engage in the behaviour

slide69

Structure

Encourage individuals to:

Develop clear and realistic expectations about what behaviour change could do for them

Formulate realistically achievable goals

slide70

Structure

Encourage individuals to:

Believe that they are capable of engaging in the appropriate behaviours

Provide positive informational feedback regarding progress

slide71

Involvement

Significant others relevant to a behaviourunderstand the person’s position and thedifficulties they are facing, and are genuinelyinterested in them and their well-being

slide72

Involvement

Show genuine interest and warmth

Express empathy and non-judgemental support

Avoid confrontation or criticism

slide73

Autonomy Support

Structure

Involvement

Autonomy Support

Behaviour-outcome

relations understood

Provision of choice

Emotional support

Pressure minimised

Genuine interest

Clear and realistic

expectations

Encouragement to

initiate actions

Empathy

Positive feedback

Autonomy

Competence

Relatedness

Amotivation External Introjected Identified Integrated Intrinsic

Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation Regulation

IncreasingSelf-Determination

slide74

Motivational

Interviewing

and SDT

slide75

Motivational Interviewing

Developed in the context of the treatmentof alcohol problems

Dissatisfaction with bothtraitapproachesand traditional client-centred approaches

slide76

Trait approaches

Those who do not recover … areconstitutionally incapableof beinghonest with themselves

Alcoholics Anonymous (1955)

slide77

Trait approaches

Treatment failure attributed to clientcharacteristics

72% of treatment centres blamed the clientsfor treatment failures, only 11% attributedsome responsibility to the treatment

programmes

(Moore, 1971)

slide78

Trait approaches

Clients who fail to respond to treatmentoften said to be in denial

“The layers of denial in alcoholism run deep and present an almost impenetrable wall”DiCicco et al. (1978)

The only way round denial is to confront

slide79

The meaning of denial

Denial is when the client disagrees with thetherapist. A client not in denial is one whodoes not challenge the therapist’s authorityand plays by the rulesKoumans (1969)

slide80

Self-fulfilling prophecy

The trait model discourages intervention

Perceptions that the client is unmotivatedmay invoke negative behaviours in thetherapist, such as suspicion, hostilityand a lack of empathy

slide81

Leake & King (1977)

Counsellors were informed prior totreatment that some clients werelikely to show ‘remarkable recovery’based on personality test profiles

slide82

Leake & King (1977)

They showed greater compliance totreatment, more sober days and fewerslips at one-year follow-up, and weremore likely to have held down a job thancomparable controls

In fact, they were randomly selected

slide83

A state of mind in which a person hascoexisting but conflicting feelings aboutsomething

Miller & Rollnick (1991)

The problem of ambivalence

slide84

The problem of ambivalence

There are both benefits and costs associatedwith changing behaviour

Arguing for change can produce perfectlyvalid counter-arguments (from the client’spoint of view)

slide85

Yes, I did start going to anexercise class but I felt soembarrassed among allthose fit slim youngsters.

I only went once then gave up.

Have you thought abouttaking up exercise tohelp you control yourweight?

slide86

Yes, but people wouldlook at the size of meand think I’m a right oldfool.

Well, you don’t have togo to classes to exercise,you could just go for ajog around the park.

slide87

I haven’t got a video player.

Well, you could alwaysexercise at home. Whynot buy one of thoseexercise videos?

slide88

Yes, but I’m so unfit, I’mafraid I might do myselfmore harm than good.

Ah. OK, well you couldjust have a bit of aworkout to music on theradio or something.

slide89

Yes I know, but what withthe kids and the job and thehousework and everything,I really haven’t got the time.

Well you have to startoff with just very lightexercise and then buildit up. A brisk twentyminute walk every daywould help you startto get fit.

slide90

Yes, but …

Well, what about …

slide92

Negative effects of persuasion

Most people have either not consideredchanging their behaviour or are ambivalentto change

Advice or persuasion to change could be

perceived as a threat to autonomy

slide93

Client-centred counselling

Carl Rogers

Allows the client to determine the contentand direction of counselling

Avoids advice and active intervention

slide94

Client-centred counselling

Provides non-contingent empathy(unconditional positive regard)

Explores the client’s conflicts asthey currently exist

Aims to help the client accept theway they are

slide95

Motivational interviewingThe philosophy

Motivational Interviewing is … a client-centred,directive method for enhancing intrinsicmotivation to change by exploring andresolving ambivalence

Miller & Rollnick (2002)

slide96

Two major facets

Style: How the counsellor interacts with the client

Techniques: The strategies adopted by the counsellor

slide97

Motivational Interviewing emphasises:

Choice and personal responsibility

The client’s own concerns and views onthe problem

slide98

It takes two to tango

Motivational Interviewing emphasises:

That denial and resistance to change areinterpersonal issues, not just a problemof the client

slide99

Motivational Interviewing:

Negotiates in developing goals and strategiesto achieve them

Directs the client to consider their motivationfor change

Offers advice and suggestions where appropriate

slide100

Empathy is used selectively to reinforcemovement towards change

Actively seeks to create a discrepancybetween current and ideal behaviour

in order to motivate change

slide101

Through reflective listening,the counsellor tries tounderstand the client’sposition without

judgement or criticism

FOUR GENERAL PRINCIPLES

1 Express empathy

slide102

Express empathy

This does not mean agreeingwith theclient, simply trying to see what theirperspective on the problem is

Ambivalence is considered normal andto be expected

slide103

2 Develop discrepancy

The aim is not to have clients accept theway they are

Bringing home to the client the discrepancybetween where they are and where theywant/need to be

slide104

Develop discrepancy

Clients seeking help with behaviour changewill probably already perceive a discrepancy.Motivational interviewing seeks to make useof this discrepancy

slide105

3 Roll with resistance

The aim is to avoiddefensiveness andreactance on thepart of the client

Motivational interviewing is gentlypersuasive rather than confrontational

slide106

Roll with resistance

Psychological judo.Using the client’sown momentum topromote change

slide107

Roll with resistance

Client’s statements are reframed to helpcreate a new perspective

Clients are encouraged to find (or select)their own solutions to the problem

slide108

5 Support self-efficacy

A client may perceive that he or she has aproblem and that there are solutions to theproblem but if they do not believe that theycan implement the solutions, they will not try

Ready, willing and able

slide109

How does it work?

We are only beginning to understand thelinks between (motivational interviewing’s)processes and outcomes.Miller (1996)

slide110

How does it work?

I do puzzle … about what finally sets inmotion the process of altering that whichhas been so persistent

Foremost in my mind is the fundamentalquestion of why this approach works at allMiller (1996)

slide111

Motivational Interviewing

Present clear and neutral information about behavior and outcomes

Help the client develop appropriate goals

Provide positive feedback

Support self-efficacy

Motivational Interviewing

Express empathy

Explore client’s concerns

Demonstrate understanding of the client’s position

Avoid judgement or blame

Motivational Interviewing

Avoid coercion

Roll with resistance

Explore options

Encourage change talk

Let the client make decisions about whatand how to change

Structure

Involvement

Autonomy Support

Competence

Relatedness

Autonomy

Markland, Ryan, Tobin & Rollnick, 2005

slide112

Organismic integration

… change arises from within, from recognition of the incompatibility of the target behavior and things that are more dear, more central, more valued, and more important to the person

Miller (1994)

slide113

Organismic integration

… a process of aligning clients’ more peripheral behaviors, attitudes and beliefs toward consistency with and subservience to those values that are most central, most dear, most core to identity

Miller (1994)

slide114

Organismic integration

… a process of integration, of movement toward personal integrityMiller (1994)

slide115

Intrinsic motivation in MI

Miller & Rollnick (2002) conceptualiseintrinsic motivation as any motivationthat arises from within the person, withextrinsic motivation being where themotivation to change is imposed by others

slide116

Intrinsic motivation in SDT

In the behaviour change contexts typicallyencountered in counselling, it is oftenunrealistic to expect clients to becomeintrinsically motivated to engage in a newbehaviour

slide117

Intrinsic motivation in SDT

…the lion’s share of social developmentconcerns the assimilation of culturallytransmitted behavioral regulations andvaluations that are neither spontaneousnor inherently interesting

Ryan (1995)

slide118

Intrinsic motivation in SDT

In SDT the critical distinction is betweencontrolling regulation of behaviour,where the individual is pressuredto act either by externally imposedforces or internally controlling,introjected forces, and autonomousregulations

slide119

Developing discrepancy – a double-edged sword

Developing discrepancy could lead theindividual into the partially internalisedand self-controlling regulatory staterepresented by introjection, wherebythey are pressurising themselves to change

slide120

Developing discrepancy – a double-edged sword

Highlights the risks of adopting a mechanicalapproach to the implementation of MI’sprinciples and strategies