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Introduction to Project Management session 3
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  1. Introduction to Project Management session 3

  2. Programme Session II Review Homework Discussion Introduction to Work Breakdown Network Diagrams Critical Path Analysis Gantt Charts Summary and Close

  3. Risk Analysis A Brief Review

  4. Internal / External Risks External Environment Things outside of the projects direct control that may result in its failure, but can be identified and monitored via a watching brief, i.e. fire, flood, famine, pestilence, war and global economic meltdown! Internal Environment: Those that can occur as part of the project itself - something can usually be done about these

  5. Risk Likelihood / Impact • How likely is the risk? • Low, Medium, High • Or Extremely Unlikely (will happen once in a blue moon), Unlikely, Medium, Likely. Extremely Likely (it’s going to happen)

  6. Influence and Control • Simple list of what you can and cannot influence and control

  7. Risk Likelihood / Impact • What would be the impact on the project? • Low, Medium, High • Or Very Low (no real impact), Low, Medium, High, Very High (catastrophic)

  8. Constraint Risks • Product risk • A risk that prevents you from meeting the product (project) specification • Schedule risk • A risk that prevents project element from being completed on time • Resource risk • A risk that prevents enough or appropriate resources from being available to complete a project element

  9. Boston Chart High Risk Low Return High Risk High Return Low Risk High Return Low Risk Low Return

  10. Project Familiarity

  11. Do you still want to undertake the project?

  12. Homework Self Study Discussion You: • Reviewed your QUAD chart • Produced a Stakeholder Analysis • Produced a Risk Assessment (or you should have…). Is your QUAD chart now more precise? Have you assessed all risks? Have you considered all potential stakeholders?

  13. Tool & Technique Work Breakdown Structures Planning the Do - The Work Plan

  14. Remember our Project Life Cycle • Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) • Conception Phase (The Idea) • Definition Phase (The Plan) • Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN • Implementation Phase (The Work) DO REVIEW

  15. Motivation for a Work Plan • Helps you to understand what needs to be done • Helps others understand what needs to be done • Ensures that a task is not missed • Ensures that a task is not duplicated • Provides contingency should a key supporter be: • Taken off project • Long term ill • Resign • Get run down by a no 43 bus and die

  16. “The Devil is in the Detail” • Need enough detail for any given activity to be able to: • Accurately estimate resources needed • Accurately estimate the time required • Assign the activity to someone else • Too little detail will result in poor estimates • Too much detail is a waste of planning time

  17. “The Devil is in the Detail” • Identifying the appropriate level of detail • largely a question of experience • best to ask an expert (i.e the person performing the activity, not someone who used to do it 5 years ago, or the manager who doesn’t do it but thinks they are an expert).

  18. For a New Project • Identify tasks by • asking others / through consultation • borrowing information from similar projects • Be prepared to get it wrong and learn • this is one of the reasons why we have post-project evaluation. • Even experienced project mangers get it wrong; remember the London Dome, the Wembley stadium, the London Millenium Bridge….

  19. The Jigsaw puzzle model Consider a jigsaw puzzle

  20. it may comprise many jumbled pieces

  21. there may only be a few pieces

  22. you might only have one piece and need to find the others?

  23. you may have a nearly completed picture picture & just need to add a few pieces

  24. it may be complete and look like this

  25. or could look like this

  26. Your project is a jigsaw • You might have a complete picture • You might have all the pieces • You might know where to fit them and the sequence in which to fit them • Or you might not….

  27. Tool & Technique 10 Work Breakdown Structure ELEMENTS

  28. So your task is to identify what level of detail you have for your puzzle. • You will need to do this with your team of people. • How accurately you do this could determine the success, or otherwise, of the project

  29. Breaking the puzzle down into manageable pieces • Called a ‘work breakdown’ structure • There is a ‘bottom up approach’ and a ‘top down approach’

  30. Methods for Developing a Work Breakdown Structure • Bottom-up approach (using Brainstorming) • This is the most appropriate method for projects involving untested methods and approaches OR where team members have not performed similar projects before • Brainstorm to generate all activities you can think of that will have to be done. • Then group them into categories

  31. Remember the Traditional Cooked Breakfast Project?

  32. Group work TASK 1: Developing a Work Breakdown Structure Bottom Up Approach • Brainstorm and write any and all activities that you think need to be performed for the Proper Cooked English Breakfast (PCEB) project on post-it notes or small cards. Do not worry about overlap or level of detail at this stage. • Do not discuss task wording or details • Do not judge • Write everything down

  33. Group work TASK 2: Developing a WorkBreakdown Structure (Bottom-Up) • Study the post-its or cards and group the activities into a few major categories with common characteristics. • These will be your work assignments (elements) • Can any activities within an element be grouped into a number of subtasks? • Note this process is sometimes referred to as the Crawford Slip method.

  34. Methods for Developing a Work Breakdown Structure II Top-down approach • Better suited to projects with which you or others are familiar • Start at the top level (the finished project) and systematically develop increasing levels of detail for all activities

  35. Group workTASK 3: Developing a Work Breakdown Structure (Top-down) • Consider the finished project and work backwards. • Use a top-down approach to determine any activities that might have been missed • There might not be any for a project of this size? ?

  36. General rule for breaking down your work • No Gaps: All work for a given task must be encompassed in its sub-tasks • No Overlaps: The same work should not be included in more than one sub-task.

  37. Gantt Chart • If we were to cut the length of each post it note or card to scale and lay them out from start to finish then we basically have a Gantt Chart. • The Gantt chart is one of the project manager’s tools for scheduling

  38. Time (s) Switch stove on Break eggs Cook sausages Fry eggs Pour Water Slice + dice salad Get cutlery Lay table SLACK - SLACK - SLACK - SLACK Place Pot on Tray Serve breakfast served The Gantt Chart - example

  39. Gantt Chart • Named after its originator Henry Gantt. • A Gantt chart is a bar graph which illustrates on a timeline when each activity will start, finish and end. • It’s a pictorial representation of each stage of the project showing individual tasks subdivided into work units according to the length of time they will take.

  40. Gantt Chart - How to • A graph • Time on the horizontal axis • Each task (preferably in sequence) is listed on the vertical axis • Micrsoft office assistance available at http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/products/results.aspx?qu=gannt+chart&sc=9

  41. TIME - Project Time ? ?

  42. Time – project time The total time needed to perform a group or set of activities depends on 2 things: 1 DURATION – how long each activity will take, 2 SEQUENCE – the order in which you perform the activities.

  43. Project time Note that SEQUENCE might be determined by: • the project • you the project manager • the customer/client • all of the above

  44. A question ? • How long will a project consisting of 12 activities, which each take one week, take? A 1 week B 12 weeks B1 exactly 12 weeks B2 just slightly over 12 weeks C 6 weeks D don’t know

  45. The answer ? • A 1 week might be correct if we can do all 12 activities at the same time and have the resources to do so. • B 12 weeks (exactly or just over) might be correct if we have to do all the activities in sequence. • C 6 weeks might be correct if we can do activity 1&2 together, 3&4 together, 5&6 together, etc. • D don’t know - correct! We don’t know as we have insufficient information at the moment.

  46. Tool & Technique The Network Diagram • Note when people who aren’t project managers think of project management techniques they usually only think of Network diagrams and the Gantt chart. • They are important tools, but, as we have seen so far, they are not the only tool.

  47. Tool & Technique The Network Diagram The Network diagram is a flow-chart that illustrates; • Dependencies between tasks • The order in which tasks will be performed

  48. Network Diagrams • Event - sometimes called a milestone (e.g. “design begins”, “draft report approved”) • Activity - work required to move from one event to another • Span time - the actual project time required to complete an activity

  49. Network Diagrams (aka Dependency Diagram aka Precedence Diagram) • Events – take no time and consume no resources – they occur instantaneously • Activity – takes time and consumes resource • Span time - the actual time required to complete an activity within the project (aka duration or elapsed time)

  50. Span Time But before we can consider a Network diagram we need to know about Span time Estimating time within a project is one of most difficult things to do