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Programme Session II Review Homework Discussion Introduction to Work Breakdown Network Diagrams Critical Path Analysis Gantt Charts Summary and Close
Risk Analysis A Brief Review
Internal / External Risks External Environment Things outside of the projects direct control that may result in its failure, but can be identified and monitored via a watching brief, i.e. fire, flood, famine, pestilence, war and global economic meltdown! Internal Environment: Those that can occur as part of the project itself - something can usually be done about these
Risk Likelihood / Impact • How likely is the risk? • Low, Medium, High • Or Extremely Unlikely (will happen once in a blue moon), Unlikely, Medium, Likely. Extremely Likely (it’s going to happen)
Influence and Control • Simple list of what you can and cannot influence and control
Risk Likelihood / Impact • What would be the impact on the project? • Low, Medium, High • Or Very Low (no real impact), Low, Medium, High, Very High (catastrophic)
Constraint Risks • Product risk • A risk that prevents you from meeting the product (project) specification • Schedule risk • A risk that prevents project element from being completed on time • Resource risk • A risk that prevents enough or appropriate resources from being available to complete a project element
Boston Chart High Risk Low Return High Risk High Return Low Risk High Return Low Risk Low Return
Homework Self Study Discussion You: • Reviewed your QUAD chart • Produced a Stakeholder Analysis • Produced a Risk Assessment (or you should have…). Is your QUAD chart now more precise? Have you assessed all risks? Have you considered all potential stakeholders?
Tool & Technique Work Breakdown Structures Planning the Do - The Work Plan
Remember our Project Life Cycle • Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up) • Conception Phase (The Idea) • Definition Phase (The Plan) • Initiation Phase (The Team) PLAN • Implementation Phase (The Work) DO REVIEW
Motivation for a Work Plan • Helps you to understand what needs to be done • Helps others understand what needs to be done • Ensures that a task is not missed • Ensures that a task is not duplicated • Provides contingency should a key supporter be: • Taken off project • Long term ill • Resign • Get run down by a no 43 bus and die
“The Devil is in the Detail” • Need enough detail for any given activity to be able to: • Accurately estimate resources needed • Accurately estimate the time required • Assign the activity to someone else • Too little detail will result in poor estimates • Too much detail is a waste of planning time
“The Devil is in the Detail” • Identifying the appropriate level of detail • largely a question of experience • best to ask an expert (i.e the person performing the activity, not someone who used to do it 5 years ago, or the manager who doesn’t do it but thinks they are an expert).
For a New Project • Identify tasks by • asking others / through consultation • borrowing information from similar projects • Be prepared to get it wrong and learn • this is one of the reasons why we have post-project evaluation. • Even experienced project mangers get it wrong; remember the London Dome, the Wembley stadium, the London Millenium Bridge….
The Jigsaw puzzle model Consider a jigsaw puzzle
you may have a nearly completed picture picture & just need to add a few pieces
Your project is a jigsaw • You might have a complete picture • You might have all the pieces • You might know where to fit them and the sequence in which to fit them • Or you might not….
So your task is to identify what level of detail you have for your puzzle. • You will need to do this with your team of people. • How accurately you do this could determine the success, or otherwise, of the project
Breaking the puzzle down into manageable pieces • Called a ‘work breakdown’ structure • There is a ‘bottom up approach’ and a ‘top down approach’
Methods for Developing a Work Breakdown Structure • Bottom-up approach (using Brainstorming) • This is the most appropriate method for projects involving untested methods and approaches OR where team members have not performed similar projects before • Brainstorm to generate all activities you can think of that will have to be done. • Then group them into categories
Group work TASK 1: Developing a Work Breakdown Structure Bottom Up Approach • Brainstorm and write any and all activities that you think need to be performed for the Proper Cooked English Breakfast (PCEB) project on post-it notes or small cards. Do not worry about overlap or level of detail at this stage. • Do not discuss task wording or details • Do not judge • Write everything down
Group work TASK 2: Developing a WorkBreakdown Structure (Bottom-Up) • Study the post-its or cards and group the activities into a few major categories with common characteristics. • These will be your work assignments (elements) • Can any activities within an element be grouped into a number of subtasks? • Note this process is sometimes referred to as the Crawford Slip method.
Methods for Developing a Work Breakdown Structure II Top-down approach • Better suited to projects with which you or others are familiar • Start at the top level (the finished project) and systematically develop increasing levels of detail for all activities
Group workTASK 3: Developing a Work Breakdown Structure (Top-down) • Consider the finished project and work backwards. • Use a top-down approach to determine any activities that might have been missed • There might not be any for a project of this size? ?
General rule for breaking down your work • No Gaps: All work for a given task must be encompassed in its sub-tasks • No Overlaps: The same work should not be included in more than one sub-task.
Gantt Chart • If we were to cut the length of each post it note or card to scale and lay them out from start to finish then we basically have a Gantt Chart. • The Gantt chart is one of the project manager’s tools for scheduling
Time (s) Switch stove on Break eggs Cook sausages Fry eggs Pour Water Slice + dice salad Get cutlery Lay table SLACK - SLACK - SLACK - SLACK Place Pot on Tray Serve breakfast served The Gantt Chart - example
Gantt Chart • Named after its originator Henry Gantt. • A Gantt chart is a bar graph which illustrates on a timeline when each activity will start, finish and end. • It’s a pictorial representation of each stage of the project showing individual tasks subdivided into work units according to the length of time they will take.
Gantt Chart - How to • A graph • Time on the horizontal axis • Each task (preferably in sequence) is listed on the vertical axis • Micrsoft office assistance available at http://office.microsoft.com/en-gb/products/results.aspx?qu=gannt+chart&sc=9
Time – project time The total time needed to perform a group or set of activities depends on 2 things: 1 DURATION – how long each activity will take, 2 SEQUENCE – the order in which you perform the activities.
Project time Note that SEQUENCE might be determined by: • the project • you the project manager • the customer/client • all of the above
A question ? • How long will a project consisting of 12 activities, which each take one week, take? A 1 week B 12 weeks B1 exactly 12 weeks B2 just slightly over 12 weeks C 6 weeks D don’t know
The answer ? • A 1 week might be correct if we can do all 12 activities at the same time and have the resources to do so. • B 12 weeks (exactly or just over) might be correct if we have to do all the activities in sequence. • C 6 weeks might be correct if we can do activity 1&2 together, 3&4 together, 5&6 together, etc. • D don’t know - correct! We don’t know as we have insufficient information at the moment.
Tool & Technique The Network Diagram • Note when people who aren’t project managers think of project management techniques they usually only think of Network diagrams and the Gantt chart. • They are important tools, but, as we have seen so far, they are not the only tool.
Tool & Technique The Network Diagram The Network diagram is a flow-chart that illustrates; • Dependencies between tasks • The order in which tasks will be performed
Network Diagrams • Event - sometimes called a milestone (e.g. “design begins”, “draft report approved”) • Activity - work required to move from one event to another • Span time - the actual project time required to complete an activity
Network Diagrams (aka Dependency Diagram aka Precedence Diagram) • Events – take no time and consume no resources – they occur instantaneously • Activity – takes time and consumes resource • Span time - the actual time required to complete an activity within the project (aka duration or elapsed time)
Span Time But before we can consider a Network diagram we need to know about Span time Estimating time within a project is one of most difficult things to do