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EnerGY : SPACECRAFT ENGINEERING & SCIENCE. Kelly L. Perry NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory University of Southern California [email protected] ENGINEERING ENERGY. MISSION PHASES LAUNCH CRUISE TOUR SPACECRAFT POWER INSTRUMENTATION SCIENCE. Cassini Spacecraft.

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energy spacecraft engineering science

EnerGY: SPACECRAFT ENGINEERING & SCIENCE

Kelly L. Perry

NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

University of Southern California

[email protected]

engineering energy
ENGINEERING ENERGY
  • MISSION PHASES
    • LAUNCH
    • CRUISE
    • TOUR
  • SPACECRAFT POWER
  • INSTRUMENTATION
  • SCIENCE
cassini spacecraft
Cassini Spacecraft
  • Cassini is 22 ft tall and 13 ft wide
  • Weighs more than 10,000 pounds
  • 12 Science Instruments
  • Scientists and engineers from 17 different countries worked together to build Cassini
  • Launched in 1997 and began to orbit Saturn in July 2004
    • 2 million mile journey
  • Spacecraft travels at speeds between 2-12 miles per second
    • Around the Rose Bowl Loop in 1-4 times per second
launch
LAUNCH
  • Energy for launch was obtained by combustion of chemical propellants
  • Used Titan IVB/Centaur
    • 2.2 million pounds at launch
    • 2 solid-propellant stage-zero motors, a liquid propellant 2-stage core and a 16.7ft diameter payload fairing
  • Cassini required upgraded solid rocket boosters and a Centaur high-energy stage
  • Launched from Cape Canaveral on Oct 15, 1997

If Cassini were launched from the equator, would it have required more or less energy?

cruise
CRUISE
  • Rocket was most powerful available, but it wasn’t good enough
  • GRAVITY ASSISTS were needed
    • Used since the 1970s
    • Increases Cassini’s sun-relative speed by using gravity during fly-bys
      • Require 3 bodies: spacecraft, assisting body and central body
      • Example: Cassini, Venus and the sun
slide6
TOUR
  • Propellant used to change trajectory
  • Gravity Assists Continue: Cassini, Titan, Saturn
    • Titan is Saturn’s largest moon.
    • Larger than Mercury
    • Has an atmosphere (Nitrogen) that resembles Earth several billion years ago
  • Do Gravity Assists violate the Law of the Conservation of Energy?
    • What is the cost of the energy gained?
spacecraft power
SPACECRAFT POWER
  • Cassini obtains its power from 3 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs)
    • NOT NUCLEAR REACTORS
    • DO NOT USE FISSION OR FUSION
    • Provide power through the natural radioactive decay of plutonium
      • Pu-238 (non-weapons grade isotope)
    • Heat generated by decay is converted to electricity
  • Power is a negotiated resource on the spacecraft!!!
instrumentation
INSTRUMENTATION
  • Optical Remote Sensing
    • Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS)
    • Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS)
    • Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS)
    • Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS)
  • Fields, Particles and Waves
    • Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS)
    • Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA)
    • Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS)
    • Magnetometer (MAG)
    • Magnetospheric Imagining Instrument (MIMI)
    • Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS)
  • Microwave Remote Sensing
    • RADAR
    • Radio Science (RSS)
science titan
SCIENCE: TITAN

RADAR confirmed existence of large lakes & rivers

(images from saturn.jpl.nasa.gov)

Side-by-Side comparison of largest lake found on Titan (22 Feb 2007) and Lake Superior

saturn s rings overview
Saturn’s Rings Overview
  • Main rings would span from the Earth to the Moon
      • The rings are only half of a mile thick
  • Composed of Ice, Rocks and Dirt
    • Particles the size of dust to mountains
  • The Rings are still growing
    • The E-Ring is fed by eruptions from Enceladus
science prometheus
SCIENCE: Prometheus
  • Shepherding satellite, constraining the inner edge of the F-Ring
  • Irregular shape: 12.4 mi in diameter
  • Probably a porous ice body
science enceladus
SCIENCE: ENCELADUS

27 November 2005: Jets of Icy Particles burst from Enceladus

searching for life ocean color
Searching for Life: Ocean Color
  • Green Flagellates: 440 and 665 nm
  • Diatoms: 440, 500-540 nm
  • Dinoflagellates: 440, 500-540 nm
  • Cyanobacteria: 440, 495, 600-640 nm
searching for life
Searching for Life

Marine Mammal Care Center in San Pedro

www.marinemammalcare.org

harmful algal blooms
Harmful Algal Blooms
  • DOMOIC ACID Poisoning
  • aka Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning
  • Toxin released by Pseudo-nitzschia

(Photos provided by Robin Riggs, 2005)

harmful algal blooms1
Harmful Algal Blooms
  • HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM (HAB) occurs when toxic algae grow too quickly
    • Not all algae or algal blooms are toxic!

Non-Toxic Red Tide in New Zealand

(image from www.whoi.edu/redtide/)

  • Pseudo-nitzschia blooms are trickier!
    • They’re invisible!
climate signal
CLIMATE SIGNAL
  • During El Nino events, sea level and SST in California are higher than normal.
    • Thermocline deepens
    • Northward flow brings low nutrient waters
    • Lower Phytoplankton due to less nutrients
  • Time for RADAR!!!
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