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  1. Energy • All of Earth’s energy comes from the Sun.

  2. Nature of Energy Living organisms need energy for growth and movement.

  3. The Law of Conservation of Energy • Energy can be neither created nor destroyed it can only be converted from one form to another.

  4. Energy conversions • All forms of energy can be converted into other forms. • The sun’s energy through solar cells can be converted directly into electricity. • Green plants convert the sun’s energy (electromagnetic) into starches and sugars (chemical energy).

  5. What is photosynthesis? • Process where plants make their own food.

  6. More specifically in the chloroplast

  7. Energy Conversion in Photosynthesis 6H2O + 6CO2 ----------> C6H12O6+ 6O2

  8. sunlight carbon dioxide oxygen photosynthesis glucose water Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that happens in the leaf. TO AIR OR USED FOR RESPIRATION What are the reactants? PRODUCT REACTANT Where do they come from? FROM AIR What are the products of the reaction? PRODUCT USED BY PLANT What happens to the products? REACTANT FROM SOIL

  9. ‘synthesis’ = BUILD ‘photo’ = LIGHT Photosynthesis means building with Light carbon dioxide CO2 water H2O + glucose C6H12O6 oxygen O2 + chlorophyll  Green plants can make their own food from ……..… and ………..…  using energy in the form of ………………….  which is absorbed by chlorophyll in the ………………...  The end products of photosynthesis are ………. and ………….

  10. Lets Review • What is photosynthesis? • Where does photosynthesis take place • What is the formula for photosynthesis

  11. Cellular Respiration • All living things need energy • Energy in the form of… • Food=chemical energy • Cell energy=ATP

  12. The Energy Currency for the cell is ATP

  13. What is Cellular Respiration? • The process of converting food energy into ATP energy • C6H12O6+ 6 O2→ 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP

  14. Where does Cellular Respiration take Place? • Takes place in the mitochondria

  15. Plant Groups • Angiosperms (Flowering plants) • Gymnosperms (Cone bearing plants) • Ferns • Mosses

  16. Ecology The branch of biology that concerns interactions between organisms and their environments or habitats

  17. Levels of Biological Organization Biomolecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism Population Within the purview of ecology Community Ecosystem Biosphere

  18. Ecosystems Communities of organisms that interact with one another and with their physical environment, including sunlight, rainfall, and soil nutrients.

  19. These region are called biomes. Some of these areas would be prairies, tropical rainforests, and deserts.

  20. Biome Characteristics • Occupy large regions • Plants & animals • Have specific climate with similar plants and animals • Species composition is not the same in different areas

  21. 6 Primary Biomes • Tundra • Taiga • Grasslands • Deserts • Deciduous Forests • Tropical Rainforests

  22. Biotic Factors Biotic factors are living factors. Anything living OR THAT WAS ONCE LIVING is considered a biotic factor. include plants, animals, fungi, microorganisms

  23. Abiotic Factors Abiotic, meaning not alive, are nonliving factors that affect living organisms. include air, water, soil, temperature, wind, source of energy (usually sun)

  24. Like a set of nesting dolls… • We can think about the interactions and types of living things by organizing them into groups, smallest to largest. • A species includes only one type of organism. • Example: pigeon • A population includes all members of one species that live in the same area. • Example: all the pigeons in Brockton

  25. …bigger and bigger groups! • A community includes all of the different species that live in the same area. • Example: all the pigeons, ants, maple trees, dogs, etc. that live in Brockton • An ecosystem includes both the community and the abiotic factors. • Example: the Brockton community plus the cars, buildings, rocks, air…

  26. The organisms in a habitat can be organized in the following way… ecosystem community species population

  27. Eat or be eaten • Here are some important terms that will help you describe interactions in a food web. 1. Producer (autotroph) • can make its own food • forms the base of the food web

  28. Producers A producer is an organism that uses an outside energy source like the Sun to make energy-rich molecules.

  29. Consumer Wolves can’t make their own food. They are consumers. • A consumer is an organism that cannot make their own energy-rich molecules. Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms. The Cape Buffalo can’t make its own food. It is a consumer.

  30. Mmmmm…delicious. 2. Consumer (heterotroph) • cannot make its own food There are several words that describe consumers… • Prey: the hunted • Predator: the hunter • Herbivore: eats plants • Carnivore: eats animals • Omnivore: eats both plants and animals

  31. Consumers There are 4 general types of consumers: • Herbivores • Carnivores • Omnivores • Decomposers

  32. Herbivores Herbivores – Plant eaters • Deer • Rabbits • Grasshoppers

  33. Herbivores Zebras eat grass. They are herbivores. Cows are herbivores.

  34. Carnivores Carnivores – Meat Eaters – Eat other animals • Frogs • Spiders • Cougars

  35. Carnivores Not all carnivores have razor sharp teeth. Lions definitely eat meat!

  36. Omnivores Omnivores – Eat both plants and animals • Bears • Pigs • Humans

  37. Omnivores Raccoons are omnivores. They eat both plants and animals. While the panda’s digestive system is that of a carnivore, their diet consists of 99% bamboo.

  38. Decomposers Mushrooms and other fungi break-down dead decaying matter.

  39. Food webs • All organisms need FOOD to survive! • Food webs show what eats what.

  40. Food Chain A food chain is a simple model of the feedingrelationship in an ecosystem.

  41. Ecological Pyramid

  42. An energy pyramid from the Andrews 1 Kcal 3rd level consumers mostly carnivores & some omnivores 10 Kcal 2nd level consumer carnivores & omnivores 100 Kcal 1st level consumer herbivores 1000 Kcal Producers: green plants make their own energy from sunlight 10,000 Kcal

  43. When an owl eats a flying squirrel it uses about 90% of the calories to live— move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators. When a frog eats a cricket or a cricket eats a plant, they use 90% of those calories to move, digest, produce body heat, reproduce and escape from predators. 0.01% 1 Kcal 0.1% 10 Kcal 1% 100 Kcal 1000 Kcal 10% 100% 10,000 Kcal

  44. Ecological Pyramid

  45. Niche You might think that competition for resources would make it impossible for so many species to live in the same habitat. However, each species has different requirements for its survival. As a result, each species has its own niche. An organism’s niche is its role in its environment – how it obtains food and shelter, finds a mate, cares for its young, and avoids danger.

  46. Predator and Prey An organism’s niche includes how it avoids being eaten and how it finds or captures its food. Predators are consumers that capture and eat other consumers. The prey is the organism that is captured by the predator.

  47. Predator and Prey Predator Prey

  48. Predator/Prey Relationship

  49. What is Symbiosis? I.) Symbiosis – 2 or more species live together in a close, long-term association.

  50. There are 3 types of Symbiotic Relationships MUTULISM COMMENSALISM PARASITISM