RNA and Transcription. AP Biology. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology (Flow of Info in Cells). DNA → RNA → PROTEINS GENE = sequence of DNA with a specific function (final product = polypeptide OR RNA) RNA's = intermediates between DNA code and proteins that determine phenotype
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1. mRNA – Messenger RNA
2. tRNA – Transfer RNA
3. rRNA – Ribosomal RNA
There are 3 main stages of transcription.
Simple Transcription Animation
TRANSLATION = RNA → PROTEINS
(Occurs on RIBOSOMES in CYTOPLASM)
• Not all harmful- can PROVIDE GENETIC VARIABILITY ~Foundation for NATURAL SELECTIONCan be: • Spontaneous (errors in replication, repair, recombination)
• Caused by MUTAGENS EX: radiation, chemicals, cigarette smoke, etc
HARMFUL MUTATIONS- change protein function • POINT mutation: change in one base pair of a gene