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  1. Three Generations of Asian Counselors:The Role of Ethnic and Cultural Identity in Counseling Supervision

  2. Overview • Multidimensions of cultural Identity • Introducing our own cultural identity • Supervision experiences with supervisor/supervisee who are sharing similar cultural background • Common Asian values & identity development process • Application of supervision theory • Discussion

  3. Constantine Questions • What are the main demographic variables that make up my cultural identities?  • What worldviews do I bring to the supervision relationship based on these cultural identities? • What knowledge do I possess about the worldviews of supervisors/supervisees who have different cultural identities from me?  • What are some of my struggles and challenges in working with supervisors/supervisees who are culturally different from me? • In what ways would I like to improve my abilities in working with culturally diverse supervisors/supervisees?

  4. Our Cultural Identities • Alison, Chinese American Immigrant Student • Ji-yeon, Korean International Female Student • Jerry, Chinese-English-American Psychologist

  5. Our Cultural Identities • Alison, Chinese American Immigrant Student • Ji-yeon, Korean International Female Student • Jerry, Chinese-English-American Psychologist

  6. Our Cultural Identities • Alison, Chinese American Immigrant Student • Ji-yeon, Korean International Female Student • Jerry, Chinese-English-American Psychologist

  7. Negative Experiences • Being “different” • Being a visible minority • Feeling marginalized, invisible, discounted • Being stereotyped • Being the victim of racial discrimination and prejudice • Shame, pain, confusion

  8. Positive Experiences • Figuring out who I am • Putting seemingly discrepant pieces together—integration • Feeling pride in my cultural heritage • Feeling connected to others with similar backgrounds • Appreciating the richness of my heritage

  9. Common Asian Values(Ho, 1992) • Filial piety • Shame • Self-control • Assumption of a middle position • Awareness of social milieu • Fatalism • Inconspicuousness

  10. Learning through Supervision • Integrating cultural identity with professional identity • Acceptance of diversity • Identifying similarities and differences • Empathic understanding • Emphasis on genuine relationship • Clarification of values, assumptions • Sharing dimensions of culture

  11. Examples • Automatic empathic understanding. “I have had the same experience.” • Sharing of experience. “Perhaps my story will help you deal with this challenge.” • Role model. “I’m glad there’s someone here who has a similar background to me.” • Counselor identity. “How can I or should I bring my identity into my counseling sessions?”

  12. Means of Interpersonal Functioning(Ancis & Ladany, 2001) • Adaptation: complacency, apathy, superficial understanding of differences • Incongruence: Confusion, some awareness, lack of commitment • Exploration: Strong emotions, e.g., anger, curiosity and insight • Integration: integrative awareness and interpersonal proficiency

  13. Supervision Relationship Types(Ancis and Ladany, 2001) • Progressive • Parallel-Advanced • Parallel-Delayed • Regressive

  14. Discussion Questions • What’s your most salient identity and how it played out in your supervisory relationship when your supervisor/supervisee was similar to yours vs. different • How cultural identity influences the development of multicultural competencies in counseling and supervision • What are some of my struggles and challenges in working with supervisors/supervisees who are culturally different from me? • In what ways would I like to improve my abilities in working with culturally diverse supervisors/supervisees?

  15. References Ancis, J., & Ladany, N. (2001). Multicultural supervision. In L. J. Bradley & N. Ladany (eds.), Counselor supervision: Principles, process, & practice (3rd ed., pp. 63‑90). Philadelphia: Brunner‑Routledge. Constantine, M.G. (1997). Facilitating multicultural competency in counseling supervision: Operationalizing a practical framework. In D.B. Pope-Davis & H.L.K. Coleman (eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies (pp. 310-324). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Ho, M.K. (1992). Minority children and adolescents in therapy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications Kim, J. (1981). The process of Asian American identity development: A study of Japanese‑American women’s perceptions of their struggle to achieve personal identities as Americans of Asian ancestry. Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 1551 1A (University Microfilms No, 81-18080) Kitano, H.L., &. Maki M. T. (1996). Continuity, change, and diversity: Counseling Asian Americans. In P.B. Pedersen et al. (eds.) Counseling Across Cultures (4th ed., pp. 124–45). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.