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  1. Safer Lithographic Printing Cleanup Solvent Alternatives July 17, 2008 Katy Wolf Institute for Research and Technical Assistance

  2. INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (IRTA) • NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION ESTABLISHED IN 1989 • ASSISTS COMPANIES, WHOLE INDUSTRIES IN ADOPTING SAFER ALTERNATIVES IN SOLVENT APPLICATIONS • IDENTIFIES, TESTS, DEVELOPS, DEMONSTRATES ALTERNATIVES • EXPERIENCE IN DRY CLEANING , CLEANING, PAINT STRIPPING, COATINGS AND ADHESIVES

  3. BACKGROUND ON INDUSTRY • LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTERS • MOST ARE SMALL BUSINESSES • 54,000 IN U.S. • 8,300 IN CALIFORNIA • 2,000 NEWSPAPERS IN CALIFORNIA • PRESSES • SHEET FED • WEB • CURRENTLY USED CLEANUP MATERIALS • HIGH VOC SOLVENTS, SOME WITH TOXICITY ISSUES • MINERAL SPIRITS, MEK, TOLUENE, XYLENE, GLYCOL ETHERS, TERPENES, HEPTANE, HEXANE

  4. BACKGROUND ON PROJECTS • OVER LAST FOUR YEARS, COMPLETED TWO LARGE PROJECTS ON LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTING CLEANUP ALTERNATIVES • SPONSORED BY SCAQMD, U.S. EPA AND DTSC • TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT / DEVELOPMENT • PROJECTS INVOLVED WORKING WITH 21 LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTERS IN SOUTH COAST BASIN • RANGE OF SUBSTRATES, INK TYPES AND PRESS TYPES • SUBSTRATES INCLUDED NEWSPRINT, COATED / UNCOATED PAPER, METAL, PLASTIC • INKS INCLUDED SOLVENTBORNE, SOY, UV, EB, AIR DRY, HEAT SET • PRESSES INCLUDED SHEET FED AND WEB

  5. BACKGROUND CONT’D • SCAQMD SET FUTURE VOC LIMIT FOR CLEANERS • EMISSIONS FROM PRINTERS IN BASIN WERE ABOUT 4 TONS PER DAY • IRTA TESTED / DEVELOPED ALTERNATIVES WITH 100 GRAM PER LITER VOC OR LESS • IRTA FOCUSED ON SAFER ALTERNATIVES

  6. CLEANING TASKS • CLEANING BLANKETS • BLANKET CLEANING ON LARGE NEWSPAPER PRESS • USE WIPE CLOTH

  7. CLEANING TASKS CONT’D • CLEANING ROLLERS • ROLLERS ON SMALL DUPLICATING PRESS • USE SQUEEZE BOTTLE AT TOP OF ROLLER TRAIN

  8. PROJECT APPROACH • SELECT FACILITIES • VISIT FACILITIES • OBTAIN INK SAMPLES • CONDUCT SCREENING TESTS • CONDUCT ON-SITE TESTS • IF CLEANER WORKED WELL, PROVIDED A WEEK’S SUPPLY • CONDUCTED EXTENDED TESTING (THREE MONTHS) AT SEVEN FACILITIES • PROVIDED SAMPLES FOR COMPATIBILITY TESTING • ANALYZED / COMPARED COSTS OF CURRENT CLEANERS, ALTERNATIVES • WROTE REPORTS

  9. LOW-VOC, SAFER ALTERNATIVES • METHYL ESTERS • SOY • ACETONE • WATER-BASED CLEANERS • BLENDS OF THESE MATERIALS • BLENDS OF THESE MATERIALS WITH VOC SOLVENTS • IPA, OTHER ALCOHOLS • EEP • DPM • MINERAL SPIRITS

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF SAFER ALTERNATIVES • METHYL ESTERS • SOY, RAPE SEED, COCONUT, CANOLA • CLEAN MOST INKS (EXCEPT INKS FOR METALS) WELL • VERY LOW VAPOR PRESSURE (VERY SLOW EVAPORATION) • ADD SURFACTANTS TO MAKE THEM RINSEABLE • SHOULD NOT BE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS • LOW VOC CONTENT (<25 GRAMS PER LITER)

  11. CHARACTERISTICS CONT’D • ACETONE • CLEANS ALL INKS WELL • VERY HIGH VAPOR PRESSURE (VERY FAST EVAPORATION) • EVAPORATES TOO FAST TO BE USED ALONE AS ROLLER WASH • EXEMPT FROM VOC REGULATIONS • LOWER IN TOXICITY THAN NEARLY ALL OTHER ORGANIC SOLVENTS

  12. CHARACTERISTICS CONT’D • MANY OTHER EXEMPT CHEMICALS • MOST HAVE TOXICITY PROBLEMS • WATER-BASED CLEANERS • CLEAN SOME INKS, PRIMARILY UV/EB CURABLE AND NEWSPAPER INK • HIGH SURFACTANT CONTENT • SHOULD NOT BE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS • MOST WITH NO SOLVENT ADDITIVES HAVE LOW VOC CONTENT • LOW IN TOXICITY

  13. COMPATIBILITY • INDUSTRY HAS DEVELOPED TEST TO SCREEN MATERIALS • 24 HOUR IMMERSION FOR ROLLERS • 5 HOUR IMMERSION FOR BLANKETS • ROLLERS MORE EXPENSIVE THAN BLANKETS • ALL SOLVENTS DAMAGE RUBBER • TWO MAJOR RUBBER TYPES • NITRILE FOR CONVENTIONAL INK • EPDM FOR UV/EB CURABLE INK

  14. COMPATIBILITY CONT’D • COMPATIBILITY RESULTS FROM PROJECT, INDUSTRY TEST METHODS • METHYL ESTERS COMPATIBLE WITH NITRILE BUT NOT COMPATIBLE WITH EPDM • WATER-BASED CLEANERS COMPATIBLE WITH NITRILE, EPDM • ACETONE COMPATIBLE WITH EPDM BUT NOT COMPATIBLE WITH NITRILE • RINSED AND DILUTED MATERIALS MAY BE COMPATIBLE • COMPATIBILITY RESULTS FROM TESTING AND LONG-TERM USE • ACETONE APPEARS COMPATIBLE WITH NITRILE (EVAPORATES RAPIDLY) • LIMITED INFORMATION ON METHYL ESTER COMPATIBILITY WITH EPDM (MUST BE RINSED)

  15. SOME RESULTS OF TESTING • BLANKETS EASIER TO CLEAN THAN ROLLERS • ROLLER TRAIN • RINSING • HAD TO DEVELOP SPECIAL RINSEABLE SOY • PRINTERS OFTEN RINSE WITH WATER ANYWAY • FOUND SUITABLE, COST-EFFECTIVE ALTERNATIVES FOR ALL FACILITIES WITH NARROW EXCEPTIONS • SPECIAL UV WHITE INK FOR PRINTING ON PLASTIC • ROLLER WASH FOR TWO-COLOR SHEET FED PRESS FOR PRINTING ON PLASTIC

  16. RESULTS CONT’D • ONLY TESTED WITH ONE FACILITY WITH AUTOMATED BLANKET WASH SYSTEM • HAD RINSE SYSTEM • ALSO CLEANED BLANKETS BY HAND • FLASH POINT ISSUES • SHEET FED PRESSES WITH AUTOMATED SYSTEMS • WEB PRESSES WITH AUTOMATED SYSTEMS • SMALL DUPLICATING PRESSES • SOMETIMES METHYL ESTERS WORK AS ROLLER WASH AND SOMETIMES ACETONE BLENDS ARE NECESSARY • USE OF LOW VAPOR PRESSURE METHYL ESTERS • DAMPENING SYSTEM MAY HAVE TO BE CHANGED OUT MORE OFTEN • MAY CAUSE DRIPS IF NOT RINSED THOROUGHLY

  17. WHAT ALTERNATIVES SHOULD FACILITIES TRY? • SHEET FED, CONVENTIONAL INK, PAPER SUBSTRATE, HAND CLEANING • ROLLER WASH - METHYL ESTER WITH WATER RINSE • BLANKET WASH - ACETONE BLEND FOR FAST CLEANER • SHEET FED, UV CURABLE INK, PAPER SUBSTRATE, HAND CLEANING • ROLLER WASH - WATER-BASED CLEANER OR WATER-BASED/ACETONE BLEND WITH WATER RINSE • BLANKET WASH - ACETONE / GLYCOL ETHER BLEND

  18. WHAT ALTERNATIVES? CONT’D • WEB PRESS, HEAT SET INK, PAPER SUBSTRATE, AUTOMATED BLANKET WASH SYSTEM • AUTOMATED BLANKET WASH - METHYL ESTER BLEND WITH VOC SOLVENT • HAND BLANKET WASH - ACETONE BLEND FOR FAST CLEANING • SHEET FED PRESS, CONVENTIONAL INK, PAPER SUBSTRATE, AUTOMATED BLANKET/ROLLER WASH SYSTEM • METHYL ESTER OR METHYL ESTER BLEND • IF NO RINSE SYSTEM, MUST RINSE BY HAND • HAND BLANKET WASH - ACETONE BLEND FOR FAST CLEANING

  19. CASE STUDIES • PRINT 2000 GRAPHICS • FOUR SHEET FED PRESSES • HIGH QUALITY POSTERS AND FLYERS (COATED/UNCOATED PAPER) • CONVENTIONAL INK • HAND CLEAN PRESSES • EXTENDED TESTING (>3 MONTHS) • ROLLER WASH -- METHYL ESTER WITH RINSE • BLANKET WASH -- ACETONE BLEND • COST ANALYSIS INDICATED REDUCED COST FOR USE OF ALTERNATIVES

  20. CASE STUDIES CONT’D • THE PRINTERY • FOUR SHEET FED PRESSES • HIGH QUALITY POSTERS • ONE OF SIX COLOR PRESSES HAS AUTOMATED BLANKET WASH SYSTEM WITH RINSE TANK • ALSO HAND CLEAN BLANKETS • EXTENDED TESTING (>3 MONTHS) • ROLLER WASH -- METHYL ESTER WITH RINSE • BLANKET WASH FOR AUTOMATED SYSTEM -- METHYL ESTERS WITH RINSE • HAND BLANKET WASH -- ACETONE BLEND • PROBLEM -- DRIPS • COST ANALYSIS INDICATED REDUCED COST COMPARED TO 500 GRAM PER LITER VOC OPTIONS

  21. CASE STUDIES CONT’D • LITHOGRAPHIX • SEVERAL PRESSES • HIGH QUALITY PRINTING • WORKED ON SHEET FED PRESS • UV CURABLE INK • HAND CLEAN PRESS • ROLLER WASH -- WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH RINSE • BLANKET WASH -- ACETONE BLEND • COST ANALYSIS INDICATED HIGHER COST (28%) FOR USE OF ALTERNATIVES COMPARED TO 800 GRAM PER LITER VOC CLEANER

  22. REGULATIONS • SCAQMD SET 100 GRAM PER LITER LIMIT EIGHT YEARS AGO • GAVE SEVERAL EXTENSIONS AND INTERIM VOC LIMITS • INTERIM LIMIT WAS 500 OR 650 GRAMS PER LITER • JANUARY 1, 2008 DEADLINE WAS 100 GRAMS PER LITER VOC

  23. SUMMARY • ALTERNATIVES WITH VOC CONTENT LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 100 GRAMS PER LITER ARE VIABLE AND COST EFFECTIVE • ALTERNATIVES ARE LOWER IN TOXICITY • USE OF ALTERNATIVES REQUIRES ADJUSTMENT FOR SOME PRINTERS • MANY COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE IN SOUTH COAST BASIN • IRTA CONTACT INFORMATION • WEBSITE: www.irta.us • EMAIL: kwolf.irta@earthlink.net • PHONE: (818)244-0300