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The Progressive Era. What kinds of actions can bring about social change?. The Origins of Progressivism. Main Idea Political, economic, and social change in the 19 th century America led to broad progressive reforms. What it Matter Now

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the progressive era

The Progressive Era

What kinds of actions can bring about social change?

the origins of progressivism
The Origins of Progressivism

Main Idea

Political, economic, and social change in the 19th century America led to broad progressive reforms.

What it Matter Now

Progressive reforms such as labor and voting rights have helped to make life in America what it is today.

the origins of progressivism1
The Origins of Progressivism
  • What were the four goals that various progressive reform movements struggled to achieve?
    • Protecting social welfare, promoting moral reform, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiency.
cleaning up local government
Cleaning Up Local Government
  • How did government change during the Progressive Era? How were these changes important?
    • Government became more responsive to the people, elections were reformed, Senators directly elected and the public had more voice in law-making. Democracy was expanded.
cleaning up local government1
Cleaning Up Local Government
  • Reforming Local Government
    • 1900- Hurricane in Galveston, TX
    • TX legislature appointed a 5 member commission to take over the clean-up.
      • Each member takes charge of a different city depart.
    • By 1917- 500 cities adopted what Galveston did.
    • City Managers were created
      • City Councils were elected by the people
  • Reform Mayors
    • Hazen Pingree (Detroit)- instituted a fairer tax structure, set up work relief.
    • Tom Johnson (Cleveland)- dismissing corrupt and greedy private owners of utilities.
women in public life
Women in Public Life

Main Idea

As a result of social and economic change, many women entered public life as workers and reformers.

Why it Matters Now

Women won new opportunities in labor and education that are enjoyed today.

one american s story
One American’s Story
  • Sussette La Fleshe- 1879, helped translate for Chief Standing Bear (Ponca tribe) into English.
    • She testified before Congress and helped win the passage of the Dawes Act of 1887.
women lead reform
Women Lead Reform
  • Dangerous conditions, low wages, and long hours led many female industrial workers to push reform.
three part strategy for suffrage
Three-Part Strategy for Suffrage
  • Convince Legislatures to grant women the right to vote.
    • Wyoming-1st (1869)
  • Pursue Court Cases to test the 14th Amendment and threaten to lose congressional representation. Aren’t women citizens too?
    • 1875- Supreme Court rule that women were citizens, but denied them to vote.
  • Push for a constitutional amendment for women to vote.
    • 41 years women lobbied to have it.
final thoughts
Final Thoughts
  • Describe the growing presence of women in the workforce at the turn of the 20th century.
  • Identify leaders of the woman suffrage movement. Explain how woman suffrage was achieved.
teddy roosevelt s square deal
Teddy Roosevelt’sSquare Deal

Main Idea

As president, Theodore Roosevelt worked to give citizens a Square Deal through progressive reforms.

Why it Matters Now

As part of his Square Deal, Roosevelt’s conservation efforts made a permanent impact on environmental resources.

a rough riding president
A Rough-Riding President
  • Controlling Roosevelt
    • Gov. of N.Y.
    • McKinley’s V.P.
  • Roosevelt’s Rise
    • Adventurer
    • Harvard- Boxing and Wrestled
    • Rough Riders (1898)
    • San Juan Hill in Cuba
  • The Modern Presidency
    • 1901- became president (42 yrs old)
    • Sportsman
    • “Bully Pulpit”- influence media, shape legislation
    • SQUARE DEAL- progressive reforms sponsored by Roosevelt
using federal power
Using Federal Power
  • Roosevelt was convinced that modern America required a powerful federal government.
one american s story1
One American’s Story
  • Upton Sinclair- muckraker
    • “The Jungle” (1906)
    • Exposed the meatpacking industry in Chicago.
  • Theodore Roosevelt
    • Appalled by the account
    • Promised to help
roosevelt and civil rights
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
  • Roosevelt appointed African Americans to government positions
  • Invited African Americans to the White House
  • NAACP- W.E.B. Du Bois
teddy roosevelt s square deal review
Teddy Roosevelt’s Square DealReview
  • What scandalous practices did Upton Sinclair expose in his novel The Jungle? How did the American public, Roosevelt, and Congress respond?
    • Sinclair’s descriptions of the meatpacking industry’s corrupt practices disgusted both the public and Roosevelt, who pushed Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act.
teddy roosevelt s square deal review1
Teddy Roosevelt’s Square DealReview
  • How did Roosevelt earn his reputation as a trustbuster?
    • Roosevelt filed suits under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, thus breaking up some of the trusts. He also ordered the Justice department to sue the Northern Securities Company which, until the Supreme Court dissolved the company, held a monopoly over northwestern railroads.
progressivism under taft
Progressivism Under Taft

Main Idea

Taft’s ambivalent approach to progressive reform led to a split in the Republican Party and the loss of the presidency to the Democrats.

Why it Matters Now

Third-party candidates continue to wrestle with how to become viable candidates.

one american s story2
One American’s Story
  • Gifford Pinchot- head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt.
taft becomes president
Taft Becomes President

1904- Roosevelt pledged not to run for reelection in 1908.

William Howard Taft- Secretary of War under Roosevelt

progressivism under taft1
Progressivism Under Taft
  • What did Taft do that angered progressive Republicans?
    • He agreed to the Payne-Aldrich Tariff, that raised tariffs and sided with Richard Ballinger, when he removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserve list.
the republican party splits
The Republican Party Splits
  • Problems within the Party
    • Progressives were split on those who sought change and conservatives who did not.
    • Taft sides with Joseph Cannon
    • Cannon ignored progressive bills
    • Cannon stripped of his power.
    • Democrats gain control of the House of Rep.
  • Bull Moose Party
    • “New Nationalism”
    • 1912- Roosevelt decides to run again
    • Progressive Party AKA “Bull Moose Party”
  • Woodrow Wilson wins because of the split
democrats win in 1912
Democrats Win in 1912
  • Taft called Roosevelt a “dangerous egotist”
  • Roosevelt called Taft a “fathead” with a brain of a “guinea pig”
  • The election offered voters several choices:
    • Wilson- New Freedom
    • Roosevelt- Progressivism
    • Taft’s- Conservatism
    • Eugene V. Debs- Socialism
evaluating
Evaluating
  • Both Roosevelt and Taft resorted to mudslinging during the 1912 presidential campaign. Do you approve or disapprove of negative campaign tactics? Support your answer.
wilson s new freedom
Wilson’s New Freedom

Main Idea

Woodrow Wilson established a strong reform agenda as a progressive leader.

Why it Matter Now

The passage of the Nineteenth Amendment during Wilson’s administration granted women the right to vote

one american s story3
One American’s Story
  • Carrie Chapman Catt- President of the NWSA
wilson wins financial reforms
Wilson Wins Financial Reforms
  • Like Roosevelt, Wilson claimed progressive ideals, but a different idea about federal government.
  • Wilson’s “New Freedom”
  • Triple wall of privilege:
    • Trusts, tariffs, high finance
a new tax system
A New Tax System
  • Wilson worked to lower tariffs, to control big business.
  • Underwood Act- lower tariffs for the 1st time since the Civil War.
women win suffrage
Women Win Suffrage
  • Women push for the right to vote
  • Three developments made it possible:
    • Increase activism
    • Built enthusiasm for the movement
    • Rebirth of movement under Carrie Chatman Catt
women win suffrage1
Women Win Suffrage
  • By 1912, only 5 states had suffrage for women
  • Local Suffrage Battles
    • Educated women
    • Used door-to-door campaign
    • Women go to England
    • Emmeline Pankhurst- British suffragist
  • Catt and the National Movement
    • Carrie Chapman Catt-1900-1904 (NWSA)
    • Five tactics of Catt
catt national movement
Catt & National Movement
  • Lucy Burns & Alice Paul
    • National Women’s Party
  • 1919- 19th Amendment
    • 72 years after women meet.
the limits of progressivism
The Limits of Progressivism
  • Wilson wouldn’t support social reform as much.
  • Wilson and Civil Rights
    • Wilson retreated once in the White House on civil rights.
    • He appointed Southerners who extended segregation.
  • The Twilight of Progressivism
    • War in Europe would put progressive ideas on hold.
final thoughts1
Final Thoughts
  • How did the Clayton Antitrust Act benefit labor?
    • It recognized the legality of labor unions, strikes, peaceful picketing, boycotts, and strike benefits; it limited the use of injunctions in court disputes.
  • Cite two examples of social welfare legislation that Wilson opposed during his presidency and the arguments he used to defend his position.
    • Child labor laws, because he felt they were unconstitutional; federal antilynching laws, because he believed such crimes fell under state jurisdictions.
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