The Groups of the Periodic Table - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Groups of the Periodic Table
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The Groups of the Periodic Table

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  1. The Groups of the Periodic Table

  2. Group 1: The Alkali Metals • Have a ns1 configuration • Form +1 cations • Have only 1 valence electron • Reactivity increases down the column; reacts violently with H2O. • Forms basic compounds alkali.mp4

  3. Group 2: Alkali Earth Metals • Have a ns2 configuration • Form +2 cations • Have 2 valence electrons • Reactivity increases down the column; reacts violently with oxygen rather than H2O, but not as reactive as group 1. • Forms basic compounds (alkaline means “base”)

  4. Group 3-12: TransitionMetals • Have a ns2 (n-1)d(1-10) configuration • Cation charges transition (or change) • Fairly unreactive ; Fe reacts the most (especially with oxygen), while Au reacts the least • Form complex compounds and act as reaction catalysts vanadium.mp4

  5. Group 13: • Have a np1 configuration • Form +3 cations • Have 3 valence electrons • Mostly form covalent compounds • Boron is used to make glass; aluminum has never been found pure in nature – easily makes bonds

  6. Group 14: • Have a np2 configuration • Form +4 cations or -4 anions • Have 4 valence electrons • Silicon is the most abundant compound on Earth • Carbon-carbon bonding is basis of organic chemistry and life

  7. Group 15: Pnictogens • Have a np3 configuration • Form -3 anions • Have 5 valence electrons • Mostly form covalent compounds • Form basic and acidic compounds

  8. Group 16: Chalcogens • Have a np4 configuration • Form -2 anions • Has 6 valence electrons • Reactivity varies; some are gases, others are metalloids; some form weak acids • Mostly found in minerals and the majority were discovered by accident!

  9. Group 17: Halogens • Have a np5 configuration • Form -1 anions • Have 7 valence electrons • Highly reactive with alkali and alkali earth metals; form acidic compounds • Nonmetals; mostly gases

  10. Group 18: Noble Gases • Always end with a np6 configuration • Stable; don’t easily form ions • Have 8 valence electrons (no room for bonds) • Hardly reactive; known as the “inert” gases • With enough energy provided, can form compounds with halogens and chalcogens

  11. Lanthanides & Actinides • Have f orbital configurations • Lanthanides are used as catalysts in petroleum production; used in lamps, lasers, and magnets; often silvery-white soft metals that burn easily in air; • Actinides are radioactive; often release H2 gas in reactions; are dense metals