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Understanding the Periodic Table: GROUPS. Look at your periodic table. Write 10 observations on your paper. What are the 3 main groups we’ve learned about so far?. Metals 1. Ductile : conduct electricity very well. 2. Malleable : hammered, bent without breaking. 3. Shiny Examples :

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look at your periodic table
Look at your periodic table

Write 10 observations on your paper.

What are the 3 main groups we’ve learned about so far?

slide3
Metals

1. Ductile: conduct electricity very well.

2. Malleable: hammered, bent without breaking.

3. Shiny

  • Examples:

Silver (Ag)

Gold (Au)

Copper (Cu)

Aluminum (Al)

slide4
Nonmetals

1. Dull: not shiny

2. Brittle: breaks easily

3. Poor conductors of electricity and heat.

  • Examples:

Hydrogen (H)

Sulfur (S)

Chlorine (Cl)

Helium (He)

semimetals or metalloids
Semimetals or Metalloids
  • Have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
  • Only conduct electricity under certain conditions.
  • Examples:

Silicon (Si)

Boron (B)

metals nonmetals and semi metals on the periodic table
Metals, Nonmetals, and Semi-metals on the Periodic Table

semi-metals

nonmetals

metals

Color the metals, non-metals and semi-metals VERY LIGHTLY.There’s more……….

slide7

B

A

Also called Families

18 Columns 8 Columns labeled A (colors)

10 Columns labeled B (gray)

Each group has unique properties

Elements in the same group have similar properties.

group 1a alkali metals
Group 1A – Alkali Metals

silvery white metal(except cesium, which is liquid golden)

Highly reactive.

Examples:

Sodium (Na)

Potassium (K)

Cesium (Cs)

group 1a alkali metals1
Group 1A – Alkali Metals

Bohr Diagram

Lewis Dot Diagram

H

Li

Na

K

1 electron in each outer shell.

Energy levels increase by the period

group 2a alkaline earth metals
Group 2A – Alkaline Earth Metals

Malleable and ductile metals.

Very reactive.

Examples:

Magnesium

Calcium (Ca)

Radium (Ra)

group 2a alkaline earth metals1
Group 2A – Alkaline Earth Metals

Be:

Mg:

Ca:

2

3

4

2 electrons in outer shell

Energy levels increase by the period

groups 1b 8b transition metals
Groups 1B-8B: Transition Metals

Brightly colored, ductile metals.

Less reactive.

Different columns –different numbers of electrons in outer shell.

Examples:

Chromium (Cr)

Nickel (Ni)

Gold (Au)

Copper

semimetals groups 3a 6a along the zig zag line
Semimetals: Groups 3A-6A (along the zig zag line)

Properties of both metals and non-metals

Some are semi-conductors

Group number indicates how many electrons in the outer shell.

Examples:

Boron (B)

Silicon (Si)

Germanium (Ge)

Antimony (Sb)

semimetals groups 3a 6a along the zig zag line1

B

Si

Ge

Sb

Semimetals: Groups 3A-6A (along the zig zag line)

Boron (B)

Silicon (Si)

Germanium (Ge)

Astatine (As)

Antimony (Sb)…

Group number indicates the number of electrons in the outer shell.

As

Group 3

Group 4

Group 4

Group 5

Group 5

group 7a halogens
Group 7A: Halogens

Nonmetals

Brittle, dull, poor conductors of electricity.

Very reactive ionsForm salts with Group 1 elements

7 electrons in the outer shell.

Examples:

Chlorine (Cl)

Fluorine (F)

Bromine (Br)

Iodine (I)

group 7a halogens1

F

Cl

Br

Group 7A: Halogens

7 electrons in the outer shell.

As you look down the group the number of energy levels increases.

group 8a inert gases
Group 8A: Inert Gases

Also called Noble gases

Inert means inactive

8 electrons in the outer shell, which makes them non-reactive

Examples:

group 8a inert gases1

He

Ne

Ar

Kr

Group 8A: Inert Gases

Bohr

Lewis

full outer shell, which makes them non-reactive

He only has the possibility of 2 electrons in outer energy level. All the others have 8.

Each next period brings another energy level.

lanthanide actinide transuranium
Lanthanide, Actinide, TransUranium

Lanthanide also called Rare Earth Metals

Actinide and Transuranium are radioactive

All part of IIIB group

Examples:

Cesium

Uranium

Plutonium