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Ancient Civilizations of the Western Hemisphere. Maya, Aztec, & Inca. Maya - Location. southern Mexico into northern Central American called the Yucatan Peninsula. Maya - Climate. dense, steamy rain forests. Maya – Time Period. 250-900 a.d. Maya – Government.

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maya location
Maya - Location

southern Mexico into northern Central American called the Yucatan Peninsula

maya climate
Maya - Climate

dense, steamy rain forests

maya government
Maya – Government

independent city-states ruled by kings – seen as god-king, established dynasties

maya key city
Maya – Key City

Chichen Itza

maya economy
Maya – Economy
  • 1. Agriculture – maize, beans, squash
  • 2. Trade – salt, flint, feathers, shells, honey, jade ornaments, textiles
maya religion
Maya – Religion
  • 1. Polytheistic – many gods
  • 2. Pyramids – dedicated to gods and famous rulers
  • 3. Worship included material offerings, bloodletting, human sacrifice
  • 4. Calendar – 260 days, 20 months, 13 days each month

- 365 day solar calendar, different gods ruled different days

  • 5. Mathematics and astronomy – concept of zero, calendar planning
maya writing
Maya – Writing
  • 800 glyphs (symbols), on bark-paper called codex
maya decline
Maya – Decline
  • war and conflict between city states, overuse of land
aztec location
Aztec - Location

Central Mexico – Valley of Mexico, Modern day Mexico City

aztec climate
Aztec - Climate

Hot, large shallow lakes, good resources, fertile soil

aztec time period
Aztec – Time Period

1200 – 1521 A.D.

aztec government
Aztec – Government
  • Triple Alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan, 38 provinces, Emperor with absolute power

- loose control over empire with exception of tribute payments

aztec key city
Aztec – Key City
  • Tenochtitlan = capital
aztec economy
Aztec – Economy

1. Agriculture – maize, cacao beans, cotton

2. Trading Network – with Tenochtitlan as ultimate marketplace

aztec religion
Aztec – Religion

1. Polytheistic

2. Built temples and pyramids

3. 2 calendars

4. Human sacrifices to sun god

aztec writing
Aztec – Writing

No real mention – writing system of pictures derived from earlier MesoAmerican cultures

aztec decline
Aztec – Decline
  • Montezuma II reign – rebelling tribes
  • Spanish – Cortez conquered Aztecs in 1521
aztec primary source
Aztec Primary Source
  • How does the Author feel about the Aztecs?
  • Do you think the account would have varied from Cortez perspective?
  • What do think in our society would be odd/disturbing to an outsider?
inca location
Inca – Location
  • Andes Mountains of South America – Southern Peru
inca climate
Inca – Climate
  • Mountainous
inca time period
Inca – Time Period
  • 1400- 1532 A.D.
inca government
Inca – Government
  • Believed that ruler was a descendent from the Sun god
  • Nobility – ruling families
  • Bureaucracy – used small groups to work for the common good
  • Built extensive road system
inca key city
Inca – Key City
  • Cuzco = capital
  • Machu Picchu – mysterious religious center or royal resort
inca economy
Inca – Economy

1. Run by the state – regulated production of goods

2. Agriculture on terraced hillsides – maize and quinoa (grain)

inca religion
Inca – Religion

1. Polytheistic – natural spirits of moons, stars, sun, thunder, etc.

2. 2 Calendars

3. Sacrifices

inca writing
Inca – Writing
  • None, but had string/knot math/accounting system
inca decline
Inca – Decline
  • Civil War between two sons of a king and Pizarro