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Organizational design for clear roles and responsibilities. RAVIC Analysis. NOTE:

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organizational design for clear roles and responsibilities

Organizational design for clear roles and responsibilities

RAVIC Analysis

  • NOTE:
  • This tool/guidance has been developed by the Global Change Management Support Team under the guidance of the Inter-Agency Task Team for Change Management. It has not been tested at the country level and there are no examples of its application from any country office at this time.
  • Expert team to implement BPR with the help of UNCT guidance.
rationale clarify accountabilities
Rationale: Clarify Accountabilities

RAVIC analysis is used to delineate decision-making roles within a team or an organization. For each decision, it clarifies who is:

  • Responsible: The individual(s) who actually completes the task, the doer. This person is responsible for action/implementation. Responsibility can be shared. The degree of responsibility is determined by the individual with the “A”.
  • Accountable: The individual who is ultimately responsible. Includes yes or no authority. Only one “A” can be assigned to a function.
  • Veto: The individual who has the power of veto over a given decision, it is an exception authority.
  • Informed: The individual(s) who needs to be informed after a decision or action is taken. This incorporates one-way communication.
  • Consulted: The individual(s) to be consulted prior to a final decision or action. This incorporates two-way communication.

R – Responsible

A – Accountable

V – Veto authority

I – Informed

C – Consulted

ravic template
RAVIC Template

The RAVIC analysis helps develop a tailored accountability framework that a UNCT could use to agree how joint activities should be managed, including stakeholder management.

ravic example
RAVIC example

Take the example where the UN plans to engage in a major joint programme to enhance the living situation for people living with HIV and AIDS. The communications group would prepare the communication strategy around this event, yet the cluster on HIV and AIDS has to be involved in the process as well:

Explanation for role allocation on next slide

communication example
Communication example
  • Role 1: Communications group
    • R: The communications group prepares the communication items and ensures the right messages are distributed through the right communication channels
    • A: The communication group is ultimately accountable for the communication messages going out to the media
  • Role 2: UNDAF Cluster chair
    • C: The cluster chair would need to consulted on the fact the communication groups prepares these communication activities and on the objective of the messages
    • V: The cluster chair would have the right to veto the communication messages on behalf of the UNCT, should they not be in line with the messages and image the UNCT envisions for the UN involvement in the HIV and AIDS area
  • Role 3: UNDAF Outcome leader
    • C: The outcome leader would need to be consulted on the nature of the messages and how they relate to the outcome and activities
  • Role 4: Relevant agency heads
    • I: The agency heads that are involved in the outcome or cluster should be informed of the fact the message went out
example overall authorities for clusters
Example – Overall authorities for clusters

In the UNDAF framework, UNDAF outcomes that share a common theme (e.g. Health of Governance) are grouped in clusters. Each cluster has various roles associated with it, such as the cluster leader, outcome leaders and outcome team members

  • Role 1 UNDAF Cluster leader
    • A: Accountable for the realization of all outcomes within a cluster
  • Role 2 UNDAF Outcome leader
    • A: Accountable for the realization of a specific outcome within the cluster
  • Role 3 Outcome team member
    • R: Responsible for implementing the activities that lead to the realization of the outcome
  • Role 4: UNCT
    • V: Ability to veto any cluster decisions
    • C: Must be consulted by the cluster leader on the priorities and progress of the cluster
    • A: Ultimately accountable for the results of all the clusters in the UNDAF
  • Role 5: Donor
    • I: the donor must be informed on the outcomes/activities that are funded with the resources being made available to the cluster by the donor
steps for conducting ravic analysis
Steps for conducting RAVIC analysis

It is recommended that the RAVIC analysis is tailored for targeted areas, and not necessarily mapped out in an exhaustive manner for all decisions at all levels of an organization. For a UNCT, the following steps may be helpful:

  • Brainstorm which teams would benefit from establishing more clarity in the decision-making process (e.g. a newly formed Inter-Agency Cluster)
  • Convene the team and outline the key decisions that they will be making and discuss how the RAVIC roles would best be assigned. It is important that this activity is done by the group together, as communicating around different viewpoints and highlighting barriers is critical for addressing challenges and building ownership
  • Present the proposed decision-making framework to the UNCT and establish consensus
ravic guidelines
RAVIC Guidelines
  • Each decision must have an R. Someone must be responsible for the decision
  • There can only be one R given for each decision
  • Each decision must have an A. It may be the same role as the R role. There can be only one accountability per activity
  • The V should be used sparingly. Too many Vs may indicate that that issues of trust and competence have to be examined
  • Ensure that the Cs represent a diversity of viewpoints for important decisions
  • Place accountability (A) and responsibility (R) at the level closest to the action or knowledge
  • Authority must accompany accountability
  • Minimize the number of consults (C) and informs (I)

What is the difference between Responsibility and Accountability?

These terms are often confused and used in a mixed fashion. The role that takes the responsibility will take the decision and has the authority to do so. The role that is held Accountable might not make the decision, but will be held accountable for it (often a senior role). An example for the UN System would be a Programme Officer who is responsible for making decisions on certain expenditures. However, the accountability for these decisions will in the end be with the Head of the Agency.

how to analyze the ravic
How to analyze the RAVIC



Vertical Analysis: Evaluate the designated activities in the decision making process for a specific role


Horizontal Analysis: Evaluate the designated activities across multiple roles for a single decision / process